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Innovative Material Characterisation Methodology for Tyre Static and Dynamic Analyses

Applus + Idiada Group, Spain-Bharath Anantharamaiah
Applus IDIADA Group, Spain-Carlos Fidalgo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1519
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Tyre structures are based on composite materials that constitute numerous layers, each providing specific properties to the tyre mechanic and dynamic behaviour. In principle, the understanding of the partial contributions of the individual layers requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. In case of non-availability of such critical information, it is difficult to perform tyre FE analyses. In the current work, a methodology is proposed to study the tyre static and dynamic behaviour to estimate its constituents properties based on the measured quasi-static responses of the tyre for certain specific loads. As a first step, a simplified tyre numerical model with standard rubber material properties is modeled that can substantively predict the necessary tyre static responses, i.e. radial, longitudinal and lateral stiffness. These responses are correlated with the physical tyre response that are measured using a kinematic and compliance (K&C) test rig in the laboratory. A Design of Experiments (DoE) study, followed by an optimization process, is performed by sampling the material properties of the rubbers to simulate the FE model and match the tyre responses…
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Development of Intercooler Hose for Future Engine

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Ryoji Kodama, Takahiro Onishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0236
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Current intercooler hoses, which are made from fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) and silicone rubber (VMQ) exhibit high heat resistance and durability. However, they will be used in more severe use environments, and there is a risk of problems arising with their current material composition. This investigation into issues concerning intercooler hoses in future engines found that FKM mechanical properties were insufficient under high temperature environments. In this research, efforts to improve the mechanical properties of FKM focused on the low durability of the internal FKM crosslinking points as the cause of this insufficiency. The current crosslinking method has excellent acid resistance and cannot be modified. An effective improvement the properties was therefore sought by adding a new distinct crosslinking network while preserving the current level of acid resistance of the existing network. Carbon black gel was used as a reinforcing agent to form the new network. Polymer types and blending were adjusted to achieve the target values and develop a new FKM, which was used to make a prototype hose and confirmed to be free of…
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Comparative Study on the Effects of the Tread Rubber Compounds on Tire Tractive performance on Ice

Virginia Tech-Hoda Mousavi, Corina Sandu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber compounds of a tire play an important role in the overall performance of the tire when it is in contact with the train. Although there are many studies conducted on the properties of the rubber compounds of the tire to improve some of the tire characteristics such as the wear of the tread, there is a limited number of studies that focus on the performance of the tires on ice. This study is part of a more comprehensive study to investigate the effect of rubber compounds on performance of the tire on ice. In this study three tires that are completely identical in terms of tire parameters (such as tire dimensions, treat pattern, tire structure, inflation pressure, etc., but have different tread rubber compounds have been investigated. Several tests have been conducted for the chosen tires in three modes: free rolling, braking, and traction using the Terramechanics Rig at TMVS at Virginia Tech. In this presentation we will only focus on the result for the traction tests. The…
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Oxymethylene Ethers and Blends with Diesel Fuel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxymethylene ethers (OMEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of OMEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of OMEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for OME, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The general trend…
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Elastomeric Component Fatigue Analysis: Rubber Fatigue Methodology and Correlation between Crack Initiation and Crack Growth

FCA US LLC-Touhid Zarrin-Ghalami, Sandip Datta, Robert Bodombo Keinti, Ravish Chandrashekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0193
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many elastomeric components in automotive industry applications are subjected to dynamic service loads. Fatigue must be a consideration in the design of these components. The two approaches in rubber fatigue analysis discussed in this study are the conventional crack initiation approach, based on continuum mechanics parameters versus life, and the crack growth approach, based on fracture mechanics parameters. These methodologies were utilized and illustrated for a passenger vehicle engine mount here. Temperature effects are not considered since testing was performed at ambient room temperature and with a low frequency, typically less than 5 Hz. This promising methodology for fatigue life prediction, discussed in this paper, is a critical plane approach based on crack energy density. Rainflow cycle counting method and Miner’s damage rule are used for load cycle characterization and damage accumulation respectively. A fracture mechanics approach is implemented based on specimen crack growth data. This methodology is validated with component testing under constant amplitude experiments. Results are investigated through analysis of critical stress locations, life values, and strain states. Comparative results are presented. Numerical…
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Recent advances in swelling resistance of graphene-based rubber compounds

Ford Motor Company-Rodrigo Polkowski, Cristiano Herbert, Alper Kiziltas, Jodalva Souza, Angelo Aguiar, Cristiane Goncalves, Oberti Almeida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0769
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, graphene has attracted both academic and industrial interest because it can produce a dramatic improvement in properties at very low filler content. This review will focus on the latest studies and recent progress in the swelling resistance of rubber compounds due to the addition of graphene and its derivatives. This work will present the state-of-the-art in this subject area and will highlight the advantages and current limitations of graphene for potential future researches.
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Rubber material model development for closure bumpstop

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Satish Jayant Choudhari, Kameswara Rao Appana, Nilesh Alugade, Roshan N. Mahadule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1073
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: In vehicle development process, closures slam durability is one of the important measurement for BIW & closure design. In Closure slam simulation event, the majority of dynamic forces absorbed through rubber seals and rubber bump-stops which are typically mounted in-between the closure system and BIW. These auxiliary components also provide the cushioning to the structure and protect it from the panel interaction during abusive closure slam. In conventional CAE Simulation process, the stiffness of rubber bumpstop oftenly represented with linear stiffness data which does not capture rubber behavior during loading and unloading for both static and dynamic event. Thus, it provides an opportunity to develop the numerical material model for better rubber behavior simulation. This paper details the experimental testing of rubber material coupons under different states of strain rate. The generated hyper-elastic & viscoelastic material coefficient from experimental test data are used to develop CAE material model . This material model aids in simulating the rubber behavior more accurately under varying strain rate for static and dynamic event. This will further help in…
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A Study on the Effect of Tire Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Vehicle Handling Response

Eindhoven University of Technology-Abhijeet Behera
Siemens Digital Industries Software-Carlo Lugaro, Mohsen Alirezaei, Ioannis Konstantinou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1235
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rubber is a non-linear viscoelastic material which properties depend upon several factors. In a tire two of these factors, namely the temperature and excitation frequency, are significantly influenced by the vehicle operating conditions. In the past years, applied research studied how rubber viscoelastic characteristics affect structural and frictional tire properties. The present study focuses on how these effects interact with the vehicle handling response. Based on state of the art theory of friction, structural properties of rubber and on experimental evidence, the dependency of key tire parameters on temperature and rolling speed is established. These results are then used in combination with a single-track vehicle model to assess their impact on key vehicle parameters; as an example, the understeer coefficient, yaw resonance peak / damping and maximum acceleration are studied. Furthermore, to ensure accurate results in realistic situations, a novel tire thermodynamic model is used in combination with a detailed 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model in a numerical simulation environment. The simulations permit to study the mutual effects between tire temperature, rolling speed and…
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Hardness Testing of Elastomeric O-Rings

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4738B
  • Current
Published 2020-04-03 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general description of methods for hardness testing of O-rings including factors which affect precision and comparison of results with those obtained in standard tests.

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Test Slabs, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR-L) Low Acrylonitrile, 65 - 75

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3217/2D
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a standard acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR-L) rubber stock with low acrylonitrile content in the form of molded test slabs.
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