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Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in an Oil Jet Cooled Engine Piston

General Motors LLC-Jeff Schlautman
Simerics, Inc.-Yawei Chen, Sujan Dhar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0165
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The piston temperature has to be carefully controlled to achieve effective and efficient thermal management in internal combustion engines. One of the common methods to cool piston is by injecting oil from the crankcase underside to the piston under-crown area. In the present study, a novel 3D multiphase thermal-fluid coupled model is developed using the commercial CFD software SimericsMP+ to study the piston cooling using the oil jet. In this model, an algorithm is proposed to couple the fluid and solid computation domain to account for the different timescale of heat transfer in the fluid and solid due to the high thermal inertia of the solid piston. Combustion heat flux on the piston surface and the liner temperature distribution are used as the boundary conditions. The temperature-dependent material properties, piston motion, and thermal contact resistance between the ring and piston are also accounted for. The oil film on the piston under-crown area is captured in the model to ensure an accurate prediction of the heat transfer coefficient. The piston temperature from the numerical simulation is…
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The Isochoric Engine

University of Stuttgart-Benjamin Burger, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0796
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
At the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering at the University of Stuttgart, a single-cylinder gasoline engine with an actually isochoric combustion was developed and experimentally investigated regarding its thermodynamic behaviour. The constant-volume cycle is the most efficient in terms of thermodynamics. In this case, heat is supplied isochorously, which means at a constant volume. Due to the kinematics of the crank drive of a conventional reciprocating piston engine, combustion would have to take place infinitely fast. However, the conversion of the air-fuel mixture into heat actually requires a certain amount of time. Therefore, the approach taken in the research project was to eliminate the volumetric change during the combustion period. By superimposing the displacement functions of two counter-rotating crankshafts with different speeds and strokes, a variable stagnation of the piston movement around the top dead center is realized. For this purpose, a crankcase with appropriate mechanics was developed, designed and manufactured. By using different kinematic configurations, the dwell time of the piston can be up to 70 degrees crank angle. In the…
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Connecting Rod Durability and Big End Distortion Study

Royal Enfield-Nabeel Thekke Kolayath, Sreenivasulu T, Rod Giles
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0184
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The prediction of the connecting rod behaviour is one of the most important aspects of the engine design to estimate the engine life and its NVH behaviour. Connecting rod is usually simulated as a stand-alone component replacing the connected members with boundary conditions. These kinds of simulation usually underestimate the life of the connecting rod and overestimate the crankpin distortion. This unreal behaviour of simulation can result in over design of the crankshaft and wrong crankpin bearing selection, which can result in a noisy engine. The current Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is modelled by considering crankshaft, bearings and crankcase substructure along with the connecting rod to predict the fatigue life and bearing distortion. A multibody dynamics (MBD) simulation of the Cranktrain has been carried out to predict the forces and accelerations on the connecting rod by including the combustion force with a constant crankshaft speed for different conditions. Journal bearing crushing and bolt preload are the initial steps to the simulation. The extracted loads from MBD simulation at different conditions are imported into the FEA…
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Developing High-Performance Motorcycle Oils

Maxima Racing Oils, Kawasaki Motors Corp. USA-Mike Marcella, Aaron Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0505
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Published motorcycle lubricant research often focuses on developments to meet certain specifications, regulatory requirements, or a combination of the two. Seemingly missing from the literature is research where the primary goal is development of a lubricant that enables maximum torque, power and acceleration from a machine for the purpose of winning races. The present study combines the two areas of research, where a high-performance motorcycle engine oil platform is developed to be used in competition, while simultaneously meeting the necessary regulations and specifications to be useful for commuters and leisure riders alike. Well-known are the demands on a motorcycle oil, which must lubricate and protect the crankcase, clutch and gears, all of which have competing requirements such that a strategy to improve the performance in one area can cause a detriment in another. Formulating for racing engines that are typically much more powerful than production versions further exacerbates these dichotomies, where the traditional strategies for gaining power through the lubricant of reducing viscosity or adding friction-reducing chemistries can leave the clutch and gears open to…
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Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Achieving for both Fuel Economy and Reliability

COSMO OIL LUBRICANTS CO, LTD.-Hideki Nakamura, Shinji Ejiri
Hino Motors, Ltd.-Yoichiro Nakamura, Ken Hashimoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2243
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
When the engine oil evaporates in the crankcase, it is necessary to discharge to the outside of the engine or returns to the intake air as part of blow-by gas. The amount of oil content in the blow-by gas is preferable to be as small as possible. This paper researched the evaporation characteristics of diesel engine oil for heavy duty into blow-by gas using 5W-30 and 10W-30 engine oils with the equivalent to Noack. As a result, it is found that evaporate phenomenon cannot be explained well enough by just Noack and clarified of the oil evaporation mechanism in blow-by gas.
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Development of Low Cost Closed Crankcase Ventilation With Oil Mist Separation System on Light Duty Diesel Engine

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Vishal Kailas Walhekar, Sujit Gavade, Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2578
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive industry is facing bi-fold challenge of reduction in greenhouse gases emissions as well as low operating cost. On one hand Emission regulations are getting more and more stringent on other hand there is major focus on customer value proposition.In engine emission the blow by gases are one of the source of greenhouse gases from engine. Blow-by gases not only consist of unburnt hydrocarbons but also carry large amount of oil. If oil is not separated from these gases, it will led to major oil consumption and hence increase total operating cost of Vehicle.Considering the above challenges, effort taken to develop a low-cost closed crankcase ventilation with oil mist separation system on diesel engine. For cost-effective solution, two different design and configuration of oil mist separation system developed.Further, engine with two different above said configuration has been tested for blow-by gasses and oil consumption measurement on Engine test bed and vehicle to understand the behavior in real environment. Further results compared for both configuration and further actions proposed.
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A Comprehensive Study on Euro 6 Turbocharger Selections and Its Deterioration with Closed Crank-Case Ventilation in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Aravind Mohan, Juzer Jaliwala, Kunaal Bhagat, Kumar Patchappalam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0061
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms a good strategy will be to optimize the engine out emission through in cylinder emission control techniques and a right sized after treatment system has to be used for this optimized engine. There exist several factors and trade-off between these should be established for in cylinder optimization of emissions. Since the turbocharger plays an apex role in controlling both the performance and engine out emissions of a CI engine, turbocharger selection is a crucial step in the development of new generation of Euro 6 engines in India. Such engines are equipped with additional actuators such as Intake Throttle Valve and Exhaust Throttle Valve and combination of these flap operations with turbocharger output plays a prominent role in controlling performance and emission. This study focusses on the use of different AVU (Air Valve Unit) controlled waste gate turbochargers…
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Achieving Ultra-Low Oil Consumption in Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Engines

Achates Power, Inc.-Dan Chown, John Koszewnik, Ryan MacKenzie, Dan Pfeifer, Brian Callahan, Manny Vittal
Da Vinci Technologies-Kent Froelund
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) engine architecture is widely recognized for its improved fuel efficiency relative to a four-stroke engine. Achates Power Inc. seeks to demonstrate the market readiness of the OP2S engine by proving competitive in other important areas, one of which is oil consumption. Achieving oil consumption competitive to modern four-stroke engines is thus a key step in bringing OP2S technology to market. Two-stroke engines have historically suffered from higher engine lube oil consumption and subsequent emissions and durability challenges. This is primarily due to two main features of traditional two-stroke engines; the direct interaction of the piston skirt and rings with the intake and/or exhaust ports, which results in a direct leak path for lube oil to the combustion chamber and/or exhaust manifold, and crankcase-scavenged architectures which entrain oil into air being pumped through the crankcase. The OP2S engine architecture directly addresses these concerns by utilizing intake and exhaust manifolds, a closed crankcase system, and oil control rings which operate outboard of the ports. Previous work has shown the importance of careful…
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Open Access

Comparative Performance of 12 Crankcase Oil Mist Separators

SAE International Journal of Engines

Curtin University, Australia-Vahid Golkarfard, Ramanathan Subramaniam, Jonathan Broughton, Andrew King, Benjamin Mullins
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-01-0001
Published 2018-10-31 by SAE International in United States
Closed crankcase ventilation (CCV) systems are required in most automotive markets in order to meet emissions regulations. Such systems usually require a separator to recover oil and return it to the sump. Many end users fit improved separators in order to reduce intake/aftercooler contamination with soot/oil. This study measured clean and wet pressure drop and filter capture efficiency in 12 different crankcase oil mist separators which are commonly used for either original equipment (OE) or aftermarket fitment to passenger vehicles and four-wheel drives (≤200 kW). The filters tested spanned three different size/rating classes as well as included both branded and unbranded (imitation) models. In addition to filters, separators (often termed “catch cans”) and an OE cyclone separator were also examined. Testing was performed under controlled laboratory conditions using methods equivalent to previous work and current mist filter test standards. All separators were tested at flow rates between 50 and 250 lpm in both dry and “wet” (saturated with oil) states. Filtration/separation efficiency was also measured. Separators were compared based on quality factor (ratio of capture…
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Study of a Turbocharged Engine for Motorbike Application

Porsche Engineering Services GmbH-Vincenzo Bevilacqua, Giovanni Corvaglia, Klaus Fuoss, Matthias Penzel
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the engine charging practice is widely adopted in the automotive field in relation to the “downsizing” technology: the reduction of the displacement and the adoption of a higher boost pressure, through a charging system, allow shifting the engine operating point in a zone of higher efficiency for a given engine torque. On the other hand, given a certain displacement, a supercharger can be adopted to increase the performance of the engine.The objective of this work is to provide a detailed analysis about the feasibility of the implementation of a charged engine to a motorbike, with main focus on the possibility to achieve a challenging performance target: in a first stage, several engine architectures (In-line, V-configuration, Boxer) together with different charging concepts (centrifugal or volumetric compressor, with mechanical or fluid-dynamic connection to the engine) have been analyzed from the point of view of packaging. In a second part, a V4 engine architecture has been selected for a patrol motorcycle application: the conceptual investigation of the base engine design has been carried out with the development…
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