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Development and Application of a Collision Avoidance Capability Metric

AAA Northern California Nevada & Utah-Paul Wells, Atul Acharya
Dynamic Research Inc.-Jordan Silberling, Joseph Kelly, John Lenkeit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1207
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development and application of a newly developed metric for evaluating and quantifying the capability of a vehicle/controller (e.g., Automated Vehicle or human driver) to avoid collisions in nearly any potential scenario, including those involving multiple potential collision partners and roadside objects. At its core, this Collision Avoidance Capability (CAC) metric assesses the vehicle’s ability to avoid potential collisions at any point in time. It can also be evaluated at discrete points, or over time intervals. In addition, the CAC methodology potentially provides a real-time indication of courses of action that could be taken to avoid collisions. The CAC calculation evaluates all possible courses of action within a vehicle’s performance limitations, including combinations of braking, accelerating and steering. Graphically, it uses the concept of a “friction ellipse”, which is commonly used in tire modeling and vehicle dynamics as a way of considering the interaction of braking and turning forces generated at the tire contact patches. When this concept is applied to the whole vehicle, and the actual or estimated maximum lateral and…
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Negotiating the Steering Control Authority within Haptic Shared Control Framework

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Vahid Izadi, Amir H. Ghasemi, Pouria Karimi Shahri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1031
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Communication and cooperation among team members can be enhanced significantly with physical interaction. Successful collaboration requires the integration of the individual partners' intentions into a shared action plan, which may involve a continuous negotiation of intentions and roles. This project aims to explore the underlying process of intention integration and develop models for consensus reaching in a haptic shared control framework. We pay particular attention to the role of impedance modulation as a mechanism for negotiation of intentions across the physical or haptic channel. We present an optimal control-based methodology for an automation system to modulate its impedance to either gain or yield the authority to the human driver.
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Design and Analysis of Kettering University’s New Proving Ground, the GM Mobility Research Center

Kettering University-Jennifer M. Bastiaan, Craig J. Hoff, Randall S. Beikmann, Scott LaForest
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0213
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid changes in the automotive industry, including the growth of advanced vehicle controls and autonomy, are driving the need for more dedicated proving ground spaces where these systems can be developed safely. To address this need, Kettering University has created the GM Mobility Research Center, a 21-acre proving ground located in Flint, Michigan at the former “Chevy in the Hole” factory location. Construction of a proving ground on this site represents a beneficial redevelopment of an industrial brownfield, as well as a significant expansion of the test facilities available at the campus of Kettering University. Test facilities on the site include a road course and a test pad, along with a building that has garage space, a conference room, and an indoor observation platform. All of these facilities are available to the students and faculty of Kettering University, along with their industrial partners, for the purpose of engaging in advanced transportation research and education. This work describes the history of the proving ground development and outlines its design. Special emphasis is placed on a detailed…
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Capability-Driven Adaptive Task Distribution for Flexible Multi-Human-Multi-Robot (MH-MR) Manufacturing Systems

Chang’an University-Shaobo Zhang
Clemson University-Yunyi Jia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1303
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Collaborative robots are more and more used in smart manufacturing because of their capability to work beside and collaborate with human workers. With the deployment of these robots, manufacturing tasks are more inclined to be accomplished by multiple humans and multiple robots (MH-MR) through teaming effort. In such MH-MR collaboration scenarios, the task distribution among the multiple humans and multiple robots is very critical to the efficiency and also more challenging due to the heterogeneity of different agents. Existing approaches in task distribution among multiple agents mostly consider humans with assumed or known capabilities. However, in reality human capabilities are always changing due to various factors, which may lead to suboptimal efficiency. Although some researches have studied several human factors in manufacturing and applied them to adjust the robot task and behaviors. However, the real-time modeling and calculation of multiple human capabilities and real-time adaptive task distribution in flexible MH-MR manufacturing according to human capabilities are still challenging due to the complexity of human capabilities and heterogeneous multi-agent interactions. To address these issues, this paper…
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System Integration in Aircraft Environment – Hydraulic Performances Through Coupled Simulations

Airbus Operations GmbH-Henning Witt lng
Airbus Operations India-Ashutosh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0004
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate hydraulic performance at early program stages in the complete aircraft and power consuming systems environment based on joint collaboration with Chiastek is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of an aircraft hydraulic performance in order to limit the need for a physical integration test bench and extensive flight test campaign but also to avoid late system redesign based on robust early stage model based engineering and to secure the aircraft entry-into-service
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ICE ADVANCES

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_01
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Engine developers employ revised electronic architectures, mechanical tweaks to boost fuel efficiency and performance of internal-combustion engines.

Engineers are leaving no stone unturned in their unceasing drive to improve fuel economy, leveraging electronics, monitoring airflow and using data from outside the vehicle. Computer architectures are being revised to simplify controls and reduce sensor counts, helping keep costs in line.

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A New Network Design for the “Internet from Space”

Aerospace & Defense Technology: February 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20AERP02_06
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Satellites do not yet play a major role in the world's Internet infrastructure; however, this may soon change. Within the next decade, a new generation of satellites could lay the foundations for an “Internet from space,” according to Ankit Singla, a professor at ETH Zurich's Network Design & Architecture Lab. His team is investigating how to improve the performance of large-scale computer networks including the Internet.

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‘Hyper Glue’ Could Be Used for Medical Implants

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36015
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers hope to make everything from protective clothing to medical implants stronger and more corrosion resistant thanks to a newly developed hyper glue formula. The team of chemists and composite materials researchers discovered a broadly applicable method of bonding plastics and synthetic fibers at the molecular level in a procedure called cross-linking. The cross-linking takes effect when the adhesive is exposed to heat or long-wave UV light making strong connections that are both impact-resistant and corrosion-resistant. Even with a minimal amount of cross linking, the materials are tightly bonded.

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‘Laxatives’ may ease challenge of lithium-ion alternative

Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP02_10
Published 2020-01-01 by SAE International in United States

The R&D dimension of the automotive industry often reveals novel solutions and cross-linking between materials, but a team of international scientists has come up with something truly unusual: boosting supercapacitor power and efficiency using newly developed “laxatives.” It's all about developing improved electrolytes as part of a program to enhance supercapacitor performance, making them more practical with enhanced energy storage for use in hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs).

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Editorial

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: January 2020

Editor-in-Chief-Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AVEP01_01
Published 2020-01-01 by SAE International in United States

What are your greatest needs related to Standards? That question is one I typically ask during my conversations and formal interviews with mobility-industry engineers. As might be expected, those involved with AV development tend to offer a robust list of standards they'd like SAE International to pursue.

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