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Unsettled Technology Domains in Aerospace Additive Manufacturing Concerning Safety, Airworthiness, and Certification

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019008
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being used to produce many certified aerospace components. However, significant advantages of AM are not exploited due to unresolved issues associated with process control, feedstock materials, surface finish, inspection, and cost. Components subject to fatigue must undergo surface finish improvements to enable inspection. This adds cost and limits the use of topology optimization. Continued development of process models is also required to enable optimization and understand the potential for defects in thin walled and slender sections. Costs are high for powder-fed processes due to material costs, machine costs, and low deposition rates. Cost for wire-fed processes are high due to the extensive post-process machining required. In addition, these processes are limited to low-complexity features. Incremental improvements in all of these areas are being made but a step change could potentially be achieved by hybrid processes, which use wire feedstock to deposit the bulk of the part and powder for fine detail. NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies…
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Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine Coated with YSZ

SVMIT Bharuch-Dr. Dipakkumar C. Gosai
SVNIT Surat-Anil Kumar Gillawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2548
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion. The combination of this ceramic material produces excellent high-temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) resistant to thermal cycling stresses and strains. The engine valves, engine heads, and engine pistons were thermal barrier ceramic coated and computerized experimental results were compared to the base engine. Experimental results justified TBC…
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High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat System for Tractor Sheet Metal Application

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Rahul Lalwani, Sudhir Sawant, Yogesh keskar, Nitin Pagar
Mahindra Research Valley-Vinay Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2541
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In sheet metal painting for various applications like tractor and automobiles, most attractive coating is metallic paints. It is widely applied using 3 coat 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production through put time and lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming and sustainability initiatives, paint application process was identified to reduce burden on environment and save energy. Various other industry benchmarking and field performance requirement studies helped to identify critical quality parameters. There was collaboration with supplier to develop monocoat system without compromising any performance and aesthetic properties. This resulted in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.Metallic mono-coat formulated using strong polyurethane resins and latest technology pre-coated aluminum pigment for achieving metallic effect in finish. With new resin technology, further reduction in baking temperature and energy is possible.
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Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

Mahindra Engineering-Rahul Lalwani
Mahindra Research Valley-Divya Pande, B Jayanthan, Vinay Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2555
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating. This method can save huge time in predicting the weathering performance and decision making. RESULTS (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation degradation study was performed on…
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, ADAPTER, SHRINK BOOT, CATEGORY 5 (FOR MIL-DTL-22992 CONNECTORS, CLASSES C, J, AND R)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/59B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
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Steel, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Welding Wire 15Cr - 25.5Ni - 1.3Mo - 2.2Ti - 0.006B - 0.30V

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5804H
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
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Aluminum Alloy, Extrusion 3.7Cu - 1.15Li - 0.5Zn - 0.45Ag - 0.4Mg - 0.3Mn - 0.1Zr (2055-T84) Solution Heat Treated, Stress Relieved by Stretching 2% to 5% and Aged

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4257
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, and profiles.
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Steel, Corrosion and Heat Resistant, Welding Wire 9.0Mn - 20Cr - 6.2Ni - 0.20N

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5818C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
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Nickel-Iron Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Welding Wire 12.5Cr - 42.5Ni - 6.0Mo - 2.7Ti - 0.015B - 35Fe

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5830C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel-iron alloy in the form of welding wire.
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Titanium Alloy Sheet, Strip, and Plate 6Al - 6V - 2Sn Solution Heat Treated and Aged

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4990D
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate up through 4 inches (101.6 mm).
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