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Analysis and Simulation of Low-Speed Collision of Car Front Bumpers

South China University of Technology-Min Li, Wenbin Shangguan
Zhuzhou Times New Material Technology Co. Ltd.-Zhangyang Xia
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Bumper systems are vital to improving automotive passive safety and reducing the maintenance cost in low-speed collision. Automotive companies need to develop bumpers with adequate strength, high energy absorption rate, minimum weight and least expense. To shorten the product development period and lower the development cost, four evaluation conditions were proposed to assess the behaviors of car front bumpers based on the three main low-speed collision regulations of the US Part 581, the Canadian CFVSS215 and the European ECE-R42. A finite element method was put forward to model the car front bumper and to analyze the low-speed collision performance of the bumper system. A drop hammer impact test was carried out to verify the validity of the method, and experiment results indicated the correctness of the finite element model. The dynamic response and the energy absorption parameters of the bumper system were calculated, including structural deformation, collision force and energy absorption ratio. The maximum longitudinal deformation and the energy absorption ratio were chosen as the evaluation standards to determine whether the bumper meets the collision…
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Development of Crash Performance of the Front Bumper System by Adopting Target Cascading Scheme

Hyundai Motor Company-Youngkyu Kim, Eunmi Jeong, Hyunsup Kim
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A practical application of the Target Cascading scheme for the development of the front bumper system of a passenger car is investigated in this paper. The Target cascading in the crash performance of vehicle developments requires a systematic approach, propagating from the desired vehicle-level performance target to appropriate specifications in a system- and/or component-level. To define the values of design specification in the front bumper system, three physical variables are derived by analyzing the vehicle-level performance of the frontal impact under the high-speed (56kph NCAP frontal impact) and the low-speed (15kph RCAR structural test) crash conditions.To ensure the sequential deformation in the high-speed frontal impact and to minimize the damage of the structural member in the low-speed crash, the maximum collapse load of a crash box should be smaller than the collapse load of a front side member. Under the low-speed crash condition, the maximum dynamic displacement of a front bumper beam should be smaller than the distance between the bumper beam and a cooling module. In addition, the deformation energy of the crash box…
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Eleven Instrumented Motorcycle Crash Tests and Development of Updated Motorcycle Impact-Speed Equations

Axiom Forensic-Louis Peck
Collision Engineering Associates, Inc-Charles Dickerson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Eleven instrumented crash tests were performed as part of the 2016 World Reconstruction Exposition (WREX2016), using seven Harley-Davidson motorcycles and three automobiles. For all tests, the automobile was stationary while the motorcycle was delivered into the vehicle, while upright with tires rolling, at varying speeds. Seven tests were performed at speeds between 30 and 46 mph while four low-speed tests were performed to establish the onset of permanent motorcycle deformation. Data from these tests, and other published testing, was analyzed using available models to determine their accuracy when predicting the impact speed of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The most accurate model was the Modified Eubanks set of equations introduced in 2009, producing errors with an average of 0.4 mph and a standard deviation (SD) of 4.8 mph.An updated set of Eubanks-style equations were developed adding data published since 2009, and advancing from two equations (pillars/axles and doors/fenders) to four equations (axles, pillars/bumpers, doors, and fenders). When applied to the subject tests, the newly developed set of equations produced an average error of 3.5 mph (SD = 4.3 mph). With…
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Optimization Design of Rear-Engine Bus Cooling System Based on 1D/3D Coupling Simulation

Tongji University-Zhenzhen Hao, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This study investigated the effects of underhood structure parameters (two types of air ducts, two types of inlet grilles and the opening angle of inlet grilles) on the cooling characteristics of the rear-engine bus; then, the optimum design scheme of the underhood was determined. The air-side resistance load of the cooling system, which is based on fan performance, was selected as the optimization objective. Simulations were created based on a porous media model and standard a k-ε model. The next step was to build a 1D/3D coupling simulation to utilize the advantages of 1D simulation’s fast convergence speed and 3D simulation’s extensive research range. Besides, the use of 1D/3D coupling simulation can efficiently avoid the errors of simulation results which arise from the non-uniform airflow on the cooling module. Results show that the airflow rate of the rectangular air duct increased by 7 to 11percent. Compared with the airflow rate of the underhood without an air duct, the air resistance load of an underhood with a rectangular air duct was less than that of an…
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All-new unibody 2019 Blazer goes stylish, not burly

Automotive Engineering: August 2018

Paul Seredynski
  • Magazine Article
  • 18AUTP08_10
Published 2018-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Chevrolet took the wraps off its all-new 2019 Blazer as the front-engine, FWD/AWD D-segment midsze SUV is charged with filling a gap in the Chevy lineup, slotting in between the Equinox and Traverse. Based on a unibody structure, the 5-seat Blazer is not off-road focused per its storied namesake (think blazer like sportscoat), but is a sharply styled on-roader. Its closest competitor in terms of size and mission is likely the Ford Edge, in a segment still sales-led in the U.S. by the Jeep Grand Cherokee.

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Tail Bumpers for Piloted Aircraft

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1107C
  • Current
Published 2017-07-14 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice covers the fixed structure, or independent energy absorbing system affixed to the airframe to afford protection to the control surfaces, engine and other portions during ground handling, take-off and landing.
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Aluminum Extrusions for Automotive Crash Applications

National Research Council Canada-Jean-Francois Beland
RTA-Nick Parson
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
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Optimizing the Rear Fascia Cutline Based On Investigating Deviation Sources of the Body Panel Fit and Finish

FCA US LLC-James Mansour, Jeff Tibbenham
Lawrence Technological University-Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation. Experimental approach as well as Response Surface Methodology “RSM” will be used for developing the analysis. Models that accurately describe the response values by experiments will help identify the most critical factors and an analytical…
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2018 Ford F-150 diesel aims to beat 30 mpg

Automotive Engineering: February 2017

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 17AUTP02_15
Published 2017-02-01 by SAE International in United States

With two key 30-mpg enablers for the F-150 already in production-an aluminum body structure and 10-speed transmission-Ford Truck Engineering now brings the final piece of the technology puzzle: a 3.0-L turbodiesel.

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Citroën to unveil CXperience concept at 2016 Paris show

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2016

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 16AUTP10_09
Published 2016-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Having shrugged off the inhibiting effects of conventional design that took it into the category of the mundane for many years, PSA Citroën's latest demonstration of its original technological and aesthetic design capabilities for its Citroën brand is the CXperience concept, timed for unveiling at the 2016 Paris Auto Show.

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