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Divergence of Thickness Loss vs. Weight Loss, Friction and Wear Behavior of Heavy Truck Brake Blocks: Development of a New Test Procedure for the Chase Tester

Ask Automotive Pvt, Ltd.-Aman Rathee, Devendra Kumar Sharma, Shivraj Singh
SKR Consulting LLC-Seong Kwan Rhee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Heavy truck brake blocks are found to swell (or expand) permanently during testing or usage, especially so at high temperatures, thus leading to longer durability as measured by thickness loss, similar to light vehicle disc pads. This swelling phenomenon occurs continuously in the layer adjacent to the friction surface during testing or usage; not a one time event. The thickness loss estimated from the weight loss is always greater than measured thickness loss. Brake block wear does not increase linearly with increasing normal load, and the load-sensitivity of block wear is very much dependent on the products. A new test procedure has been developed for generating friction-vs.-temperature and wear-vs.-temperature data at a constant temperature employing intermittent braking on the Chase Brake Lining Quality Tester (SAE J661) and friction material wear can be compared on equivalent-work basis.
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The Normal-Load and Sliding-Speed Dependence of the Coefficient of Friction, and Wear Particle Generation Contributing to Friction: High-Copper and Copper-Free Formulations

Compact International (1994) Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob
SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Automotive brakes operate under varying conditions of speed and deceleration. In other words, the friction material is subjected to a wide range of normal loads and sliding speeds. One widely accepted test procedure to evaluate, compare and screen friction materials is the SAE J2522 Brake Effectiveness test, which requires full-size production brakes to be tested on an inertia brake dynamometer. For the current investigation, disc pads of two types of 10 different formulations (5 high-copper and 5 copper-free formulations) were prepared for testing on a front disc brake suitable for a pickup truck of GVW 3,200 kg. Each pad had 2 vertical slots, and one chamfer on the leading edge and also on the trailing edge of the pad. One segment of the test procedure looks at the coefficient of friction (Mu) under different brake line pressures and different sliding speeds to determine its stability or variability. In all cases, the Mu is found to be dependent on the normal load and sliding speed, contrary to the commonly called “Amontons-Coulomb’s Laws of Friction”. According to…
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Brake Block Effectiveness Rating

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1802_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the test procedure and methods to calculate the effectiveness of brake blocks, using an inertia dynamometer. To minimize testing variability, and to optimize standardization and correlation, a single, high volume size of brake block is specified (FMSI No. 4515E) and evaluated in a reference S-cam brake assembly of 419 mm x 178 mm (16.5 in x 7.0 in) size, using a specified brake drum.
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Inertia Dynamometer Rotor Crack Test Procedure for Air Disc Brakes

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3080_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-17 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice applies to commercial vehicles equipped with air disc brakes and above 4536 kg of Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. Other assessments on the friction material or rotor related to wear, durability, correlation to product life, noise, judder, compliance to specific regulations, etc., are not part of this RP (Recommended Practice).
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Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

Politecnico di Torino-Pier Giuseppe Anselma, Shirish Padmakar Patil, Giovanni Belingardi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Designing automobile brake systems is generally complex and time consuming. Indeed, the brake system integrates several components and has to satisfy numerous conflicting government regulations. Due to these constraints, designing an optimal configuration is not easy. This paper consequently proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations). Ergonomics constraints and the compensation for the fluid losses are then retained as further design requirements. Finally, the optimal design identification is carried out based on overall system braking performance and the cost. Particularly, optimal braking performance is…
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Friction Coefficient Identification and Environmental Marking System for Brake Linings

Brake Linings Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J866_201903
  • Current
Published 2019-03-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide a uniform means of identification which may be used to classify the friction coefficient of brake linings, based on data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with SAE J661 Brake Lining Quality Test Procedure and SAE J2975 Measurement of Copper and other elements in Brake Friction Materials. NOTE: It is emphasized that this document does not establish friction requirements for brake linings, nor does it designate significant characteristics of brake linings which must be considered in overall brake performance. Due to other factors that include brake system design and operating environment, the friction codes obtained from this document cannot reliably be used to predict brake system performance.
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Off-Vehicle Brake Testing for Service Brakes Over 10000 Pounds GVW Air, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Actuation

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2806_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Subject document is specifically intended for service brakes and service brakes when used for parking and/or emergency brakes (only) that are commonly used for automotive-type, ground-wheeled vehicles exceeding 4536 kg (10000 pounds) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Subject specification provides the off-vehicle procedures, methods, and processes used to objectively determine suitability of tactical and combat ground-wheeled vehicle brake systems and selected secondary-item brake components (aka, aftermarket or spare parts), including brake “block” for commercial applications only, specifically identified within subject document. Subject specification is primarily based on known industry and military test standards utilizing brake inertia dynamometers. Targeted vehicles and components include, but may not be limited to, the following: a Civilian, commercial, military, and militarized-commercial ground-wheeled vehicles such cargo trucks, vocational vehicles, truck tractors, trailers, and specialized support and engineering equipment under the generic heading of ground vehicle “dry” brake systems (GVDBS). b Hydraulic, air, and mechanical “dry” disc brake and drum brake systems, when used as service brakes, including service brakes (only), when used as emergency and/or parking brakes. c Hydraulic, air, and…
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Brake Pads, Lining, Disc, and Drum Wear Measurements

Brake Dynamometer Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2986_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-07 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice provides a common method to measure wear of friction materials (brake pad assemblies and brake shoes) and their mating parts (brake disc or brake drum). These wear measurements apply to brakes fitted on passenger cars and light trucks up to 4536 kg of Gross Vehicle Weight Rating under the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS), or vehicles category M1 (passenger cars up to nine occupants, including the driver) under the European Community’s ECE Regulations.
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High-Preload Deflection and Compressibility Test Procedures for Friction Materials

Brake Linings Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2468_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This standard specifies a method for testing and measuring the deflection of friction materials assemblies and compressibility of friction materials. This standard applies to disc brake pad assemblies and its coupons or segments, brake shoe lining and its coupons or segments, and brake blocks segments used in road vehicles. This SAE test method is consistent in intent with the ISO 6310 and the JIS 4413.
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Trailer Grade Parking Performance Test Procedure

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1452_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes methods to determine grade parking performance with respect to: a Ability of the parking brake system to lock the braked wheels. b The trailer holding or sliding on the grade, fully loaded, or unloaded. c Applied manual effort. d Unburnished or burnished brake lining friction conditions. e Down and upgrade directions.
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