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Strength Evaluation and Validation of Structural Joints.

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Nikhil Soman, Ankit Desai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0485
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many methods have been developed to evaluate the fatigue life of structures when the its joints are as per ideal case. But if the joints are loosening, it leads to increase in loading on the other members which causes failures. Most commonly in commercial vehicle segment welding joint & Bolting joints are most popular ones. It is very easy to find out bolts strength & loosening effect in static conditions. But when vehicle is moving (i.e. dynamic condition), same method cannot be used. For this we have developed methodology to predict the bolts loosening in dynamic condition using vibration data. Similarly, loading may differ on the structural members if the welds are failing in dynamic conditions. To overcome this problem, in our organization we have a solution. Of course to simulate welding failures fatigue analysis is mandatory. We are using notch-stress approach for evaluating the welding strength of the joint. This method does not need weld material data instead it increases the amplitude stress appearing on nodes representing welding joint. We have correlated both the…
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Quantification of Clamp Loss and Subsequent Loosening of Automotive Hub-Knuckle Joints under Time-Varying Proving Ground Loading

FCA US LLC-Sandip Datta, Parag NITTUR
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0181
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Threaded fasteners or bolted joints are used extensively in automotive components. There are standard procedures to evaluate joint performance under block cycles or road loads. The deciding load case for such joint design is the slippage analysis of the joint. There are studies done to evaluate the theoretical and experimental behavior of these joints. There are different ways of understanding the interaction between the bolt and the nut under different loading scenarios. However, none has provided a satisfactory method of quantifying the bolt loosening or loss of clamp under cyclic loading where initially no slippage is observed. Under varying loads, initial relaxation of the joint is followed by a loss of clamping load to below the critical value. Below a critical value, complete loss of clamping load happens very rapidly and results in a loose joint. The loss of clamping load below the critical value happens at a transition stage when both elastic deformations of the bolt as well as external moments contribute to rapid loosening. This study provides an overall understanding of geometric parameters…
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Dynamic bolt load identification for battery pack based on machine learning

China University Of Mining & Technology-Deke Sheng
Tsinghua Univ-Zhichao Hou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0865
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Batteries are exposed to dynamic load during vehicle driving. It is significant to clarify the load input of the battery system during vehicle driving for battery pack structural design and optimization. Currently, bolt connection is mostly applied for battery pack constraint to vehicle, as well as for module assembly inside the pack. However, accurate bolt load is always difficult to obtain, while directly force measurement is expensive and time consuming in engineering. In this paper, a precise data driven model based on Elman neural network is established to identify the dynamic bolt loads of the battery pack, using tested acceleration data near bolts. The dynamic bolt force data is measured at the same time with the acceleration data during vehicle running in different driving conditions, utilizing customized bolt force sensors. A data preprocessing method synthesizing Wavelet denoising method and machine learning algorithm is designed to improve model precision under dynamic condition. Parts of the pretreated acceleration and force data that obtained in various driving conditions are employed for model training, while the rest for model…
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Non- Destructive method for measuring Fastener Preload via Electromagnetic acoustic resonance

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0011
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
We describe a novel, non-destructive fastener preload measurement technique based on electromagnetic acoustic resonance, an emerging ultrasonic spectroscopy technique for nondestructive and noncontact materials characterization, relying on the use of electromagnetic-acoustic transducers and the synchronous envelope detection circuitry for processing the received reverberation signals excited by continuous wave excitation method achieved through narrow band radio-frequency (RF) sweeps. The transduction occurs through the Lorenz force mechanism and, for ferrous metals, the dynamic response of magnetostriction and the magnetic force as well. High signal to noise ratio is achieved by receiving the overlapping coherent echoes at resonant frequencies. The spectral response can be interpreted and the propagation velocities can be correlated to stress applied by fasteners to the area medially surrounding the fasteners. The acoustoelastic effect involves a change in the velocity of acoustic waves when a material is under mechanical stress. This is state of stress in the structure immediately surrounding fasteners is commonly referred to as preload and is a considered a reaction to the tightening action of the fastener. The acoustoelastic effect of material…
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High Frequency Vibration Transmission Analysis on Agricultural Tractor by Using Combined Dynamical Energy Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis Approach

University of Nottingham-Gregor Tanner, Martin Richter
Yanmar R&D Europe s.r.l-Satoshi Morita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0527
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. Using DEA, the structure-borne sound of an assembled agricultural tractor was calculated and good agreement between measurement and DEA calculations has been shown. However, it is still difficult to model a solid structure as currently DEA is based on wave-transmission calculations through plates and plate-to-plate junctions. Additionally, it is often difficult to generate accurate FE meshes of assembled complex structures because of welds, bolts, and rubber brushes between components. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate DEA elements based on measurement data in order to model solid parts of a complex structures. The method of Advanced Transfer Path Analysis (ATPA) is employed to extract energy-transmission characteristics of a structure. Firstly, Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are measured between interface points on a structure. Then the direct transfer functions between all interface points are calculated using ATPA. Finally, DEA elements connecting interface points are calculated. They are based on the ATPA result…
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Use of staircase method to validate a new design of engine pulley

Cummins Brasil LTDA-Tadeus Marchesi, Wagner Trindade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0255
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
A Cummins internal project demanded the development of a new crankshaft pulley. This new pulley will be mounted in the engine, but before this mounting process, a validation phase must be accomplished with the primary goal of avoiding failures during engine tests and, most of all, during vehicle operation. This article documents part of the work done to validate the new pulley, aiming to deliver a component that meets the specification demanded by the application to be released in the market. It is presented how acceptable unreliability of the pulley was assessed by means of fatigue testing. Several approaches could be used, but following internal standards for this kind of component, the procedure chosen was the staircase fatigue method. After finishing the testing phase and data treatment, the findings indicated that the new crankshaft pulley presented infinite life when subjected to the hub load found in the application with a design margin of 82%. Another validation that was carried out is related to the bolts used in the mounting. The bolted joint measurement and its…
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BOLT, SPLINE DRIVE, EXTENDED WASHER, REDUCED SHANK, AMS5662 (UNS N07718), 1275 MPa UTS, METRIC

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • MA4147A
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States

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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEX EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, PD SHANK, UNS N07718 - 185 KS

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3580A
  • Current
Published 2019-12-10 by SAE International in United States

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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEXAGON EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, CLOSE TOLERANCE SHANK, AMS4967 (UNS R56400), 160 KSI, .5625-18, UNJF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3153B
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States

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Outboard Mounted Brake Drum/Disc Wheel Hub Interface Dimensions - Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1671_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice contains dimensions and tolerances for outboard mounted brake drums and disc wheel hubs in the interface areas. This recommended practice is intended for outboard mounted brake drums and disc wheel hubs commonly used on class 7 and 8 commercial vehicles. Included are SAE J694 mounting systems II, III, IV, XIV, and X. Special and less common applications are not covered.
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