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Composite Fuel Tanks, Fuel System Design Considerations

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5774
  • Current
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering references and data useful to the technical community that can be used to ensure fuel system compatibility with composite structure. This AIR is not a complete detailed design guide and is not intended to satisfy all potential fuel system applications. Extensive research, design, and development are required for each individual application.
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Comparison of Particulate Emissions of a Range Extended Electric Vehicle under Different Energy Management Strategies

Tongji University-Yaxin Wang, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Range extended electric vehicles achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption by employing as an energy source a small displacement combustion engine that is optimized for high efficiency at one, or a few, operating points. The present paper examines the impact of various energy management strategies on the particulate emissions from the auxiliary power unit (APU) of a range extended electric bus, including optimized auxiliary power unit (APU) on/off strategy, single-point strategy, two-point strategy, power-following strategy and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition, this paper also compares the particulate emissions of single energy storage system and composite energy storage system on single-point energy management strategy. The main conclusions in this paper are as follows: After optimizing the APU on/off strategy, the APU starts and stops frequently to make the cylinder temperature relatively low, which results in the reductions of both the particle mass (PM) and the particle number (PN). The application of two-point strategy and power-following strategy maximizes the output power of high load, and then the particulate emission presents significant increasing. With the…
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Thermal Analysis of Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit: Application of Chemical Looping Combustion

National Institute of Technology-Prashant Kumar, MD AKRAM, Anand Shankar Singh, Sanjay S
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
An “APU” (Auxiliary Power Unit) is a small gas turbine engine to provide supplementary power to an aircraft and is located at the tails of larger jets. APU generators provide auxiliary electrical power for running aircraft systems on the ground. Applications include powering environmental systems for pre-cooling or preheating the cabin, and providing power for crew functions such as preflight, cabin cleanup, and galley (kitchen) operation and long-haul airliners must be started using pneumatic power of APU compressor. The Honeywell 131-9A gas turbine APU has 440 kW shaft power and 90 kW electric generator consuming 120 kg fuel/hour. Here the traditional combustor of the APU is proposed to be replaced by a chemical-looping-combustion (CLC) system. CLC system consist of two reactor one is oxidation reactor (air reactor) and the other is reduction reactor (fuel reactor).The system is fluidized bed system in which activated metal-oxide(MeO) participates and circulates between the reactors .The metal-oxide (MeO) provides oxygen for combustion in the fuel reactor. The reduced metal is then transferred to air reactor before being reintroduced to the…
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Thermal Analysis of Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit: Potential of Super-Critical CO2 Brayton Cycle

National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur-Anand Shankar Singh, Sanjay S
Vellore Institute of Technology-Tushar Choudhary
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
An “APU” (Auxiliary Power Unit) is a small gas turbine engine to provide supplementary power to an aircraft and is located at the tails of larger jets. APU generators provide auxiliary electrical power for running aircraft systems on the ground. Applications include powering environmental systems for pre-cooling or preheating the cabin, and providing power for crew functions such as preflight, cabin cleanup, and galley (kitchen) operation and long-haul airliners must be started using pneumatic power of APU compressor. The Honeywell 131-9A gas turbine APU has 440 kW shaft power and 90 kW electric generator consuming 120 kg fuel/hour. Hybrid power systems based on fuel cells are promising technology for the forthcoming power generation market. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is the perfect candidate for utilizing waste heat recovery. This case deals with waste heat recovery from fuel cell exhaust using Brayton cycle as bottoming cycle for additional power production. Here in this paper the traditional combustor of the APU is proposed to be replaced by a hybrid system which integrates a solid oxide fuel…
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Fundamentals in Wire Selection and Sizing for Aerospace Applications

AE-7C Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6540
  • Current
Published 2019-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this report is to capture fundamental principles of selecting a wire size for an aerospace application using the method prescribed in the AS50881 standard and additional calculations, not found in AS50881, to ensure the wire selection will adequately perform in the specific physical and environment conditions. This report covers wire selection and sizing as part of the electrical wire interconnection systems (EWIS) used in aerospace vehicles. Aerospace vehicles include manned and unmanned airplanes, helicopters, lighter-than-air vehicles, missiles, and external pods. This document does not apply to wiring inside of airborne electronic equipment but shall apply to wiring externally attached to such equipment. Wire selection must consider physical and environmental factors to size wires such that they have sufficient mechanical strength, do not exceed allowable voltage drop levels, are protected by materials or circuit protection devices, and meet circuit current carrying requirements. For electrical power feeders and distribution, or EWIS applications, other information and environmental and installation limitations are also needed to adequately evaluate and select the correct wire size for a specific…
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Recommended Practice for Identification of Standardized Truck and Tractor Electrical Circuits

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2191_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-08 by SAE International in United States
This SAE document defines a recommended practice for implementing circuit identification for electrical power and signal distribution systems of the Class 8 trucks and tractors. This document provides a description of a supplemental circuit identifier that shall be utilized in conjunction with the original equipment manufacturer’s primary circuit identification as used in wire harnesses but does not include electrical or electronic devices which have pigtails. The supplemental circuit identifier is cross-referenced to a specified subsystem of the power and signal distribution system identified in Section 5.
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Safety Assessment of Transport Airplanes in Commercial Service

S-18C ARP5150A and ARP5151A Working Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5150A
  • Current
Published 2019-01-02 by SAE International in United States
This document describes guidelines, methods, and tools used to perform the ongoing safety assessment process for transport airplanes in commercial service (hereafter, termed “airplane”). The process described herein is intended to support an overall safety management program. It is associated with showing compliance with the regulations, and also with assuring a company that it meets its own internal standards. The methods identify a systematic means, but not the only means, to assess ongoing safety. While economic decision-making is an integral part of the safety management process, this document addresses only the ongoing safety assessment process. To put it succinctly, this document addresses the “Is it safe?” part of safety management; it does not address the “How much does it cost?” part of the safety management. This document also does not address any specific organizational structures for accomplishing the safety assessment process. While the nature of the organizational structure is significant to the quality of a safety program, this document focuses on the functions to be accomplished and does not attempt to define what the structure…
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Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of an Aviation Auxiliary Power Unit Analyzed with the Aid of Exergy

C.V. Raman College of Engineering-Aishi Sahu
Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering-Mithilesh Kumar Sahu
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
During the past decade environmental and sustainability issues have become major problems to overcome since they have caused regional and global consequences. This paper discusses the environmental and sustainability aspects of Gas Turbine (GT) based aviation Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) analyzed with the aid of exergy. Exergy analysis is a potential tool to determine exergy destructions and losses and their true magnitudes and exact locations. In this study some exergy based parameters such as: exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy recoverability ratio, exergy destruction ratio, environmental impact factor, and exergetic sustainability index are proposed and investigated. Cycle operating parameters such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) have been chosen for analysis of the gas turbine cycle based APU. Mathematical modeling of the cycle has been done and the same has been coded in MATLAB. Results show that increasing waste exergy ratio decreases the exergetic efficiency and exergetic sustainability index. However, any increase in waste exergy ratio results in an increasing environmental impact of the GT cycle based APU. Exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy…
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Methods and Processes for Evaluation of Aerodynamic Effects of SAE-Qualified Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids

G-12ADF Aircraft Deicing Fluids
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6852C
  • Current
Published 2018-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This document describes methods that are known to have been used by aircraft manufacturers to evaluate aircraft aerodynamic performance and handling effects following application of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”), as well as methods under development. Guidance and insight based upon those experiences are provided, including: Similarity analyses Icing wind tunnel tests Flight tests Computational fluid dynamics and other numerical analyses This document also describes: The history of evaluation of the aerodynamic effects of fluids The effects of fluids on aircraft aerodynamics The testing for aerodynamic acceptability of fluids for SAE and regulatory qualification performed in accordance with AS5900 Additionally, Appendices A to E present individual aircraft manufacturers’ histories and methodologies which substantially contributed to the improvement of knowledge and processes for the evaluation of fluid aerodynamic effects
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Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Processes

G-12M Methods Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6285A
  • Historical
Published 2018-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush, or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 (Type I fluid) and AMS1428 (Type II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents. Due to aerodynamic and other concerns, the application of deicing/anti-icing fluids shall be carried out in compliance with engine and aircraft manufacturer's recommendations.
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