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The Cloud Detectability Conundrum

Collins Aerospace-Darren Glenn Jackson
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the beginning of aviation, aircraft designers, researchers, and pilots have monitored the skies looking for clouds to determine when and where to fly as well as when to deice aircraft surfaces. Seeing a cloud has generally consisted of looking for a white / grey puffy orb floating in the sky, indicating the presence of moisture. A simple monitoring of a temperature gauge or dew point sensor was used to help determine if precipitation was likely or accumulation of ice / snow on the airframe could occur.Various instruments have been introduced over the years to identify the presence of clouds and characterize them for the purposes of air traffic control weather awareness, icing flight test measurements, and production aircraft ice detection. These instruments have included oil slides, illuminated rods, vibrating probes, hot wires, LIDAR, RADAR, and several other measurement techniques. Each technology has its own strength and weakness including the particle size range and water content that can be measured and its ability (or lack thereof) to discriminate different types of icing conditions.The FAA release…
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Automated Conflict Resolution for Air Traffic Control (AAC) Versions 1 and 2

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33622
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A conflict resolution algorithm that can provide automated separation assurance for the next-generation air traffic control system has been developed. The algorithm generates resolution trajectories that can be sent to the aircraft from a ground-based system via a data link. With suitable reconfiguration, the algorithm can also be installed onboard aircraft to support airborne separation assurance. It handles the complete spectrum of conflict types encountered in en-route airspace, including ascents to cruise altitude and descents to arrival fixes. The resolution trajectories are patterned after changes to flight plans (route changes), altitude clearances, and speed profiles that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts.


Directory of Databases Part I - Whole Body Anthropometry Surveys

G-45 Human Systems Integration
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5145A
  • Current
Published 2018-11-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) lists whole body anthropometric surveys and provides current sources for the survey raw data and summary statistics.
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2018 Create the Future Design Contest: Sustainable Technologies Category Winner

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33321
Published 2018-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Processes

G-12M Methods Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6285A
  • Historical
Published 2018-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush, or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 (Type I fluid) and AMS1428 (Type II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents. Due to aerodynamic and other concerns, the application of deicing/anti-icing fluids shall be carried out in compliance with engine and aircraft manufacturer's recommendations.
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Air Traffic Management (ATM) System

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33112
Published 2018-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

As the demand for air transportation increases, the capacity of the current U.S. ATM system will eventually be stressed to its limits. New technologies in communication, navigation, and surveillance (CNS), along with new decision-support systems and an evolutionary development of the ATM system architecture, can extend the capacity of the current system for several years. NASA has developed a new method and system, based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), that relates to control of aircraft traffic through specification of trajectory coordinates.


Guidance on Mitigation Strategies Against Laser Illumination Effects

G10-OL Operational Laser Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6378
  • Current
Published 2018-06-02 by SAE International in United States
This document is intended to give guidance to users, regulators and persons in the aviation field who may be affected by the potential visual interference effects of lasers aimed at aircraft by the general public. The potential effects include startle (distraction, disruption, disorientation, and operational incapacitation), glare, and flashblindness. This document provides mitigation strategies against such effects, including operational procedures, pilot education, and the use of Laser Glare Protection. Prevention of harm from laser eye injuries is discussed but is not a focus of this document, due to the extremely low likelihood of injurious levels of laser light in typical aircraft illumination scenarios. Devices for detecting and reporting hazardous laser illuminations are briefly described in Appendix D, but are not a focus of this document. Some information in this document may also be useful for non-aviation users, such as persons driving vehicles. Additional information can be found in ANSI Z136.6, “Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors”.
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Design of Aircraft Deicing Facilities

G-12DF Deicing Facilities Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4902C
  • Current
Published 2018-02-15 by SAE International in United States
This document provides information and guidance material to assist in assessing the need for and feasibility of developing deicing facilities, the planning (size and location) and design of deicing facilities, and assessing environmental considerations and operational considerations associated with de-icing facilities. The document presents relevant information necessary to define the need for a deicing facility and factors influencing its size, location, and operation. The determination of the need for deicing facilities rests with Airports. Although this document intends to provide information to airport operator and deicing facility planner/designer, all stakeholders, including deicing service providers, should be involved in the development process.
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The MITRE Corporation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28312
Published 2018-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The MITRE Corporation was chartered in 1958 as a private, not-for-profit organization to provide engineering and technical guidance for the federal government. Today, with locations in McLean, VA and Bedford, MA, MITRE serves a variety of government agencies through the operation of federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) that assist the United States government with scientific research and analysis, development and acquisition, and systems engineering and integration.


Facility Focus: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln Laboratory

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28144
Published 2018-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb in August 1949, followed by the Soviet development of bombers that could traverse the Arctic Circle, created a significant new security threat to the United States. In response to this threat, the Department of Defense commissioned the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to take a leadership role in addressing this problem. The result was the establishment of MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1951 to design and develop the first air defense system for the United States. This system, designated the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), was pioneering in its complexity and required numerous inventions — including digital computers, magnetic-core memory, large-scale computer programs, modems, and interactive graphical user interfaces — in order to come into being.