Your Selections

Air pollution
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

PMSM motor drive for Electric Vehicle applications

Vaishnavi V
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2475
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To control air pollution in urban areas and to reduce carbon print in the cities, nowadays EV’s are preferred over IC engine vehicles. Earlier Electric vehicles used DC motor and Induction motors. But Brushless Permanent Magnet motors are preferred over Induction motor for EV’s due to their High Torque density, high-power density and highly efficiency. Prevalent Electric vehicles today have Brushless DC motors. Compared to BLDC, PMSM motor have smoother control and negligible torque ripplesThus, PMSM motor is preferred over BLDC for Electric Vehicle, because of its sinusoidal back emf which results in smoother control, and results into smoother and more comfortable driving experience to users. Methodology Sensor based field-oriented control (FOC) is implemented in 48 V 5kW Interior PMSM motor. . To start the Synchronous motor initial position of the rotor magnetic field should be known. After rotor alignment, incremental encoder is used to detect the rotor position or rotor flux position. As incremental encoder gives relative position, rotor is aligned to a known position, and then algorithm moves to closed loop FOC. In…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

Delphi TVS, Chennai.-Santiago josan
Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai-Mebin Samuel P, Devaradjane G PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2387
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer. Then 0.1% of rice husk nano additive is added with the fuel blend followed by 3%, 6% of 1,4-Dioxane blended with the previous blend and its performance (BTE, BSFC) and emission (HC, CO, CO2, NOx,…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

End-of-Life Vehicles in India – Regulatory Perspectives

International Centre For Automotive Tech-Vijayanta Ahuja
International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Shakti N Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2580
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The unprecedented increment in vehicle sales in the last decade brought several challenges with it. Older vehicles, conforming to lenient emission norms continue to ply on road, continuously producing higher emissions. This not only burdens the environment with air pollution caused due to emissions, but also with land pollution caused due to landfills and the overall impact of utilising more resources excavated through nature to fulfil manufacturing requirements. Due to absence of regulations, older vehicles also compromise on active, passive and pedestrian safety measures. A need was felt to withdraw such vehicles from the roads but due to the lack of incentives for the last vehicle owner, unavailability of infrastructure or policy, though a guideline standard (AIS-129) was published, the idea, in its entirety never came to fruition. This paper discusses the areas affected during and beyond the recycling of the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). While the scrap of the vehicle shall be crushed and re-utilised from scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous), this paper also discusses potential usage of the components (such as head lamps, RVMs…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

Manav Rachna International University-Sunny Bhatia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2382
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly. The catalysts used are Rhodium Palladium and platinum, these make a…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Experimental Study on Combined Effect of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coated Combustion Chamber Components and Emulsification Approach on the Behaviour of a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters

Hindustan Institute of Tech. & Science-Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Selvakumar Raja, Ramanathan Velmurugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0164
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is generated in large quantity worldwide due to the increase in population and change of food habits. This work is about utilizing this WCO as an alternative fuel for Compression Ignition (CI) engine, in view of addressing the constraints in the domain of land as well as air pollution. A fuel and engine level modification were carried out to analyse the behaviour of the test engine. In the first phase of the study, collected WCO was converted into its methyl esters (i.e. WCOME) and tested for its properties. A single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, compression ignition engine was developed with suitable emission and combustion parameters computing equipments in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, the developed engine was tested with neat diesel, WCO and WCOME under different engine power outputs.WCOME was converted into its emulsion (WCOMEE) and tested in the developed engine in the fourth phase of the work. In the fifth phase of the study, combustion chamber components like piston, cylinder head…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development and Testing of Electric Microcar for Indian Cities

VNR VJIET-Amjad Shaik, Srinivasa Rao Talluri, Raju Tappa, Ramu Ratlavath
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0008
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Population growth, rapid urbanisation and compounding effects of adding personal vehicles have resulted in increasing the urban air pollution in major Indian cities. Apart from the rising concerns about the urban air pollution, the increasing traffic and lack of parking space difficulties are promoting energy efficient small vehicles. Hence, there is a need to develop a new environmental friendly microcar that relatively affordable and easily manoeuvrable in bigger cities. Electric microcar is one of the most promising options to improve the near term sustainability for personal transportation in cities. This paper mainly presents the development of two seater electric microcar suitable for city driving requirements followed by road test. A mathematical modelling with reference to the urban cycle (Part-one) of modified Indian driving cycle (MIDC) is also carried out for the evaluation of energy and power requirements of electric microcar. The developed electric microcar has been tested on road with the help of the MIDC simulator kit. Results revealed that the developed prototype has demonstrated about 50 km range after one full charge.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A New Parallel Hybrid Concept for Microcars: Propulsion System Design, Modeling and Control

ENEA-Fernando Ortenzi
Positech Consulting s.r.l.-Erminio Maria Ursitti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0246
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Mobility in modern metropolitan cities is plagued by overcrowding, producing congestion, low transit speed, fuel consumption, air pollution, and parking problems. One of the causes of these phenomena is the growing market of vehicles of excessive size with respect to their more frequent use. The technological and commercial development of vehicles specifically conceived for urban use, and therefore limited in size, not exuberant in performance, and with low fuel consumption and emissions would certainly be more desirable. Hybrid drive trains are particularly suited to this purpose: properly designed, minimal thermal engines can fit the application, giving an electrical driving option when required. It is about a decade, in fact, that metropolitan areas witness birth (and affirmation) of individual transport means, which are essentially inadequate to meet their mobility requirements. Firstly, two-wheeled vehicles were being sold for amusement purpose and/or short-range mobility but soon became, for most of the metropolitan inhabitants, the only way to get around the city and be able to park, even during the winter and in the rain. Scooters, in fact, are…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Lightweight Wheel Bearing with Dissimilar Materials for Vehicle

Hyundai Motor Group-Jaehee Lee
Iljin Global-Inha Lee, Seonho Lee, Heechan Shim, Jungyang Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2134
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Limited fossil fuel resources, air pollution, and global warming all drive strengthening of fuel economy and vehicle emission standards globally. Much R&D continues to be dedicated to improve fuel efficiency of automobiles and to reduce exhaust gasses. These include improvement of engine/driveline performance for higher efficiency, development of alternative energy, and minimization of air resistance through aerodynamic design optimization. OEM weight reduction-focused research has extended into chassis components (steering knuckle, brakes, control arms, etc.) in sequence from body-in-white(BIW). Wheel bearings, one of the core components of a driveline and part of a vehicle’s unsprung mass, are also being required to reduce weight. Conventionally, wheel bearings have achieved “lightweighting” primarily through design optimization methods. They have been highly optimized today using steel based materials. Opportunities for further mass optimization are increasingly limited and so the focus of this study is integration of lighter-materials into steel bearing components for weight savings. Both aluminum and CFRP were considered in the study for partial integration into the steel hub flange which interfaces directly with the wheel. The application of…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Development of Three Way Catalyst Aging Model: Application to Real Driving Emission Condition

Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA-Julie Le Louvetel-Poilly, Shankar Balaji, Francois Lafossas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0047
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Further reduction of vehicles pollutant and CO2 emissions is required to prevent global warming and to improve air quality. The exhaust system is designed to ensure low emission during all life of the vehicle. As catalyst aging is affecting the catalyst performance, such impact needs to be consider upfront during the design of the fresh catalyst. Until now, the exhaust system design are evaluated based on real tests for each vehicle, using exhaust lines aged on engine test benches or burner benches. This induces major investigation limitations such as: late evaluation in development cycle, high testing and prototyping cost. The usage of Model Based Development approach can be a powerful way to improve this process by allowing system evaluation under several aging conditions at early development stage. The present study focuses on modelling of the Three Way Catalyst (TWC) aging to predict the mileage impact on tailpipe emissions. The activity was divided in 4 steps: 1- Development of a detailed TWC for 4 different aging levels. The impact of aging is considered by tuning the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available