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SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V128-11EJ
To be published on 2019-06-28 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.

DO -326A and ED-202A : An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials

  • Professional Development
  • C1949
Published 2019-06-10

The international standards D-326A (U.S.) and ED-202A (Europe) titled "Airworthiness Security Process Specification" are the cornerstones of the "DO-326/ED-202 Set" and they are the only Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) by FAA & EASA for aviation cyber-security airworthiness certification, as of 2019. The "DO-326/ED-202 Set" also includes companion documents DO-356A/ED-203A: "Airworthiness Security Methods and Considerations" & DO-355/ED-204: "Information Security Guidance for Continuing Airworthiness" (U.S. & Europe) and ED-201: "Aeronautical Information System Security (AISS) Framework Guidance" & ED-205: "Process Standard for Security Certification / Declaration of Air Traffic Management / Air Navigation Services (ATM/ANS) Ground Systems“ (Europe only).


Vulnerability of FlexRay and Countermeasures

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Panasonic Corporation, Japan-Takeshi Kishikawa, Ryo Hirano, Yoshihiro Ujiie, Tomoyuki Haga, Hideki Matsushima, Kazuya Fujimura, Jun Anzai
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0002
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
The importance of in-vehicle network security has increased with an increase in automated and connected vehicles. Hence, many attacks and countermeasures have been proposed to secure the controller area network (CAN), which is an existent in-vehicle network protocol. At the same time, new protocols-such as FlexRay and Ethernet-which are faster and more reliable than CAN have also been proposed. European OEMs have adopted FlexRay as a control network that can perform the fundamental functions of a vehicle. However, there are few studies regarding FlexRay security. In particular, studies on attacks against FlexRay are limited to theoretical studies or simulation-based experiments. Hence, the vulnerability of FlexRay is unclear. Understanding this vulnerability is necessary for the application of countermeasures and improving the security of future vehicles. In this article, we highlight the vulnerability of FlexRay found in the experiments conducted on a real FlexRay network. Consequently, we clarify the conditions under which attackers masquerade as legitimate electronic control units (ECUs) and transmit spoofed FlexRay frames. We also confirm that a consumer vehicle’s functions such as steering, braking,…
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Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

Clemson University-Fangjian Li, John R. Wagner, Yue Wang
U.S. Army TARDEC-Dariusz Mikulski
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors. To deal with inaccurate information due to a V2C cyber attack, a RoboTrust algorithm is designed to analyze vehicle trustworthiness and eliminate information with low credit. Finally, a human operator scheduling algorithm is proposed when the number of abnormal UGVs exceeds the limit of what human operators can handle concurrently. Representative simulation results…
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Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

Ohio State University-Hamza Anwar, Mukilan Arasu, Qadeer Ahmed
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas. We implement a consortium blockchain infrastructure, as opposed to a fully public blockchain (similar to the blockchain underlying Bitcoin) which is arguably not real-time or well suited for this safety-critical application. By leveraging in real-time a fleet vehicle’s powertrain status, geospatial traffic data,…
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Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Oakland Univerity-Abdulrahman Alzahrani
Oakland University-Abdelnasser Banihani, Huirong Fu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
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Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

Vikas Mishra
Tata Elxsi Ltd-Abid Rahman Kodakkadan, Rajesh Koduri, Sivaprasad Nandyala, Mithun Manalikandy
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy. These inductive and wireless charging techniques utilize the principle of electromagnetic induction for transferring the power. The design of the wireless charging system, can be divided into three primary stage such as coil design, compensation topology and…
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Automotive Engineering: April 2019

Jennifer Shuttleworth
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP04_07
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States

SAE's Global Ground Vehicle Standards (GVS) staff and committee members have a busy schedule lined up for this year's SAE World Congress Experience (WCX) in Detroit. The GVS team will meet and work on activities that include advanced technologies of automated driver-assistance systems (ADAS), autonomous vehicles, shared mobility, V2X, cyber security, and human factors, in addition to dozens of “traditional” subject areas.

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Efficient Security for Cloud-Based Machine Learning

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33922
Published 2019-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Outsourcing machine learning is a rising trend in industry. Major tech firms have launched cloud platforms that conduct computation-heavy tasks, such as running data through a convolutional neural network (CNN) for image classification. Resource-strapped small businesses and other users can upload data to those services for a fee and get back results in several hours.


Diagnostic Communication with Road-Vehicles and Non-Road Mobile Machinery

Softing Automotive Electronics GmbH-Peter Subke
  • Book
  • R-474
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States
Diagnostic Communication with Road-Vehicles and Non-Road Mobile Machinery examines the communication between a diagnostic tester and E/E systems of road-vehicles and non-road mobile machinery such as agricultural machines and construction equipment. The title also contains the description of E/E systems (control units and in-vehicle networks), the communication protocols (e.g. OBD, J1939 and UDS on CAN / IP), and a glimpse into the near future covering remote, cloud-based diagnostics and cybersecurity threats.
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