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Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences-Kleve, Germany-Wonder Gumise
University of Michigan-Dearborn, USA-Ahmad M.K. Nasser, Di Ma
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0003
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering. We propose two efficient schemes of the dual-phase approach along with calibratable parameters to achieve the desired tamper detection probability. We evaluate the tampering detection accuracy within a simulation environment. Then we build a…
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What M&E Can Teach the AV Industry About Data

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Jason Coari, Mark Pastor
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_05
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

Media & entertainment offers important learnings on data retention, management, scalability and security.

At first glance, autonomous vehicles would seem to have little in common with the Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry, beyond action-movie car chases and in-vehicle entertainment screens.

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Connectivity Solutions for AVs

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Chris Borroni-Bird
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_04
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

The promises of fully connected autonomous vehicles are great, but so are the challenges.

The synergies between electrification, connectivity and automation in future vehicles are creating new business models and causing developments in each to be accelerated. EVs, for example, need connectivity to assist with finding charging stations and autonomous vehicles (AVs) require significant levels of electric power to support their compute demands. But perhaps the greatest synergy lies between connectivity and autonomy.

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SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V128-11EJ
Published 2019-06-28 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.
 
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DO -326A and ED-202A : An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials

  • Professional Development
  • C1949
Published 2019-06-10

The international standards D-326A (U.S.) and ED-202A (Europe) titled "Airworthiness Security Process Specification" are the cornerstones of the "DO-326/ED-202 Set" and they are the only Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) by FAA & EASA for aviation cyber-security airworthiness certification, as of 2019. The "DO-326/ED-202 Set" also includes companion documents DO-356A/ED-203A: "Airworthiness Security Methods and Considerations" & DO-355/ED-204: "Information Security Guidance for Continuing Airworthiness" (U.S. & Europe) and ED-201: "Aeronautical Information System Security (AISS) Framework Guidance" & ED-205: "Process Standard for Security Certification / Declaration of Air Traffic Management / Air Navigation Services (ATM/ANS) Ground Systems“ (Europe only).

 

The FACE™ of Military Modernization

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34528
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

U.S. rival countries have been rapidly modernizing their militaries, with publicized advances that pose credible challenges to U.S. supremacy in all aspects of warfare: air, land, sea, space and cyberspace. On January 19, 2018 Secretary Mattis discussed the National Defense Strategy and emphasized the need to modernize key capabilities to address these threats. He stated: “To keep pace with our times, the department will transition to a culture of performance and affordability that operates at the speed of relevance. Success does not go to the country that develops a new technology first, but rather, to the one that better integrates it and more swiftly adapts its way of fighting. Our current bureaucratic processes are insufficiently responsive to the department's needs for new equipment. We will prioritize speed of delivery, continuous adaptation and frequent modular upgrades.”

 

Vulnerability of FlexRay and Countermeasures

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Panasonic Corporation, Japan-Takeshi Kishikawa, Ryo Hirano, Yoshihiro Ujiie, Tomoyuki Haga, Hideki Matsushima, Kazuya Fujimura, Jun Anzai
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0002
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
The importance of in-vehicle network security has increased with an increase in automated and connected vehicles. Hence, many attacks and countermeasures have been proposed to secure the controller area network (CAN), which is an existent in-vehicle network protocol. At the same time, new protocols-such as FlexRay and Ethernet-which are faster and more reliable than CAN have also been proposed. European OEMs have adopted FlexRay as a control network that can perform the fundamental functions of a vehicle. However, there are few studies regarding FlexRay security. In particular, studies on attacks against FlexRay are limited to theoretical studies or simulation-based experiments. Hence, the vulnerability of FlexRay is unclear. Understanding this vulnerability is necessary for the application of countermeasures and improving the security of future vehicles. In this article, we highlight the vulnerability of FlexRay found in the experiments conducted on a real FlexRay network. Consequently, we clarify the conditions under which attackers masquerade as legitimate electronic control units (ECUs) and transmit spoofed FlexRay frames. We also confirm that a consumer vehicle’s functions such as steering, braking,…
 

Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

Clemson University-Fangjian Li, John R. Wagner, Yue Wang
U.S. Army TARDEC-Dariusz Mikulski
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors. To deal with inaccurate information due to a V2C cyber attack, a RoboTrust algorithm is designed to analyze vehicle trustworthiness and eliminate information with low credit. Finally, a human operator scheduling algorithm is proposed when the number of abnormal UGVs exceeds the limit of what human operators can handle concurrently. Representative simulation results…
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Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

Ohio State University-Hamza Anwar, Mukilan Arasu, Qadeer Ahmed
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas. We implement a consortium blockchain infrastructure, as opposed to a fully public blockchain (similar to the blockchain underlying Bitcoin) which is arguably not real-time or well suited for this safety-critical application. By leveraging in real-time a fleet vehicle’s powertrain status, geospatial traffic data,…
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Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Oakland Univerity-Abdulrahman Alzahrani
Oakland University-Abdelnasser Banihani, Huirong Fu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
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