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General Industry (5) Spotlight on Design (2)

Study of leak in small engines

  • TVS Motor Co., Ltd. - TL Balasubramanian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0038
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Complete engine leak testing is generally followed to conform quality of manufacturing and assembly of different parts which otherwise create failures related to overall performance, fluid leak, gas leak and emissions etc. Light weighting of engines and downsizing is a generally accepted and followed theme towards the future emission norms which influences the part design complexity. Objective of the study is to investigate the significant parameters related to leak in cylinder head system and countermeasures to reduce the same when designing the small compact engines. In this study a systematic approach has been followed for arriving the leak rate specifications to qualify the products. In the design and manufacturing of small engines, features like compact combustion chamber with constraints of clamping bolts layout, gasket design, compact crank case layout and lower wall thickness of major casting parts are used to achieve weight and cost targets. During the development of one of such new engine, cylinder head leak rate at the valve – seat interface observed was significantly higher compared to existing production engines. Cause and effect analysis was prepared for the various leaks and valve interface leak has been focused further to bring it under acceptance level. Failure modes causing leak were experimentally evaluated under simulated conditions. Finite elemental analysis was done to understand the cylinder head distortion levels and compared with the bench mark models. Based on the force transfer mechanism from bolt clamping force to the cylinder head, solution was proposed to reduce distortions and leak rate. Volume effect on the pressure drop leak test was studied theoretically and validated experimentally to arrive at the optimum leak rate specification for the new engine. Improvements which reduced valve seat distortion helped in reducing leak significantly and an optimum leak specification arrived for the new engine. Parameters influencing leak in new engine is studied experimentally in sub-system and engine level. Countermeasure was proposed to reduce distortion and leak, improve sealing; process improvements to achieve consistency are studied experimentally and suggested. Combination of design improvements and process improvements helped in achieving the acceptable leak rates which helped to meet the engine quality, cost and weight targets.

CFD analysis of a port fuel injection IC engine to study air-fuel mixture preparation and its impact on hydrocarbon emission and mixture homogeneity in combustion chamber

  • TVS Motor Co., Ltd. - ARIVAZHAGAN GEETHA BALASUBRAMANIAN
  • TVS Motor Co Ltd - Manish Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0005
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
At part load conditions, effective utilization of fuel is critical for drivability of an IC engine driven automobile, with minimum emissions and fuel consumption. It becomes cardinal to study the mixture preparation in engines to understand the Injection strategy that helps in achieving the prime objectives of lower emission and reliable operation. To add to the complexity of the problem being studied, the injection phenomenon is rapid, turbulent, multi-phase, two-way coupled (where the continuous phase affects the droplets and vice versa) and involves turbulence length scales and time scales, few orders of magnitude lower compared to the characteristic length in the turbulence integral scale. A methodology is developed in Star-CD and ES-ICE to simulate the mixture preparation in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. High quality mixture preparation which is essential for combustion stability and lower emissions is aimed at part load conditions which constitute the majority of driving cycle. This methodology is helpful to understand and solve the injection timing development issues and in improving the combustion stability and lowering the emissions. The fuel injection parameters have been studied in detail both experimentally and numerically in a specialized spray chamber. The fuel injection parameters are correlated to the source of injection to obtain similar fit of droplet distribution profile obtained experimentally. The parameters like - injection timing, injection location and injection pressure can be efficiently optimized through this methodology for efficient mixture formation. Extensive studies have been done on different injection timing in order to reduce the wall film thickness and fuel short circuit losses and to increase the overall evaporation rate of fuel droplets by increasing the residence time. Two injection timing strategies namely - open valve injection and closed valve injection have been analyzed to understand the effect of fuel short circuit losses and its impact on HC (hydro-carbon) emissions. It is observed that, open valve injection has lower short circuit losses compared to closed valve injection which, is experimentally verified and thus has a great significance in reducing the HC emissions. However, open valve injection comparatively affects the in-cylinder charge homogeneity and standard deviation of equivalence ratio. This paper also discusses on the strategies that have been undertaken to achieve best-in-cylinder homogeneity with an adverse effect on increased fuel film thickness on the port walls. Efforts are made to optimize the injection timing and location for best mixture formation in production automotive vehicles and in extending the methodology for the corresponding emission prediction. Being a computationally intensive problem with an additional complexity of movingmesh opens an opportunity for parallel performance study. Parallel performance study shows that, the methodology proposed above uses a Message Passing Interface (MPI) and shows a good scale up for 2-16 cores above which, it saturates. Multi-cycle analysis is carried out to understand the variation in Air-Fuel ratio homogeneity and Coefficient of variation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP)which provides a fundamental vista on the transient behavior of the spray dynamics.

Potential Improvements in Turbofan Idle Steady State and Dynamic Performance

  • University of Nottingham - Hossein Balaghi, Mohamed Rashed, Serhiy Bozhko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1962
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Bleeding in engines is essential to mitigate the unmatched air massflow between low and high pressure compressors at low speed settings, thus avoiding unstable operation due to surge and phenomena. However, by emerging the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) the engine is equipped with electrical machines on both high and low pressure spools which enables transfer of power electrically from one spool to another and hence provides the opportunity to operate engine core components closer to their optimum design point at off-design conditions. At lower power setting of the engine, HPC speed can be increased by taking power from LP shaft and feeding it to HP shaft which can lead to the removal of the bleeding system which in turn reduces weight and fuel consumption and help to overcome engine instability issues. Fuel consumption can be decreased by decreasing inconsistent thrust with the aircraft mission for flight and ground idle settings. This paper investigates the novel idea of power circulation between shafts using a turbofan model developed using Intermediate Control Volume (ICV) method. Results show considerable improvement in efficiency while dynamic response for severe transient maneuvers is also improved considerably with the new control configuration.

Power Dissipation Optimizationfor Solid State Power Control Modules in Aircraft Secondary Power Distribution System

  • UTC Aerospace Systems - Neno Novakovic, Milorad Manojlovic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1930
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In the last two decades, an aerospace industry trend in secondary power distribution concept has been dominated with power electronics technology which includes power converters and Power Control Modules based on Solid State Power Control (SSPC) switching elements. Those Power Control Modules, grouped around microprocessor based controllers and combined in a single electronic chassis have become a backbone of electrical power distribution systems on all major commercial and military transport aircraft. Due to the resistive properties of the semiconductor based SSPC devices, which behaviors can be described as nonlinear functions of ambient operating temperature, power distribution system integration with SSPCs is challenged and heavily affected with operating temperatures and power dissipation limits. Although, aircraft compartments where Power Control Modules are located are considered temperature and pressure controlled, high ambient operating temperatures are possible and expected. For that reason, Power Control Modules with multiple SSPC channels, at room ambient operating temperature, cannot utilize maximum power capacity which means that certain number of power control channels cannot be used for power distribution. As a result of that, to accommodate power dissipation potential growth over extended ambient operating temperature range, an additional hardware has to be used. With emergence of more electric aircraft, where significant number of AC and DC type aircraft electrical loads have been connected to Power Control Modules total power dissipation limitation with additional hardware has been creating significant impact on total equipment weight and cost. In attempt to increase power density of the Power Control Modules, and to mitigate the risk of the permanent damage caused by excessive power dissipation at high ambient operating temperatures, this article is presenting a unique systems integration concept based on power management and electrical load shed as a function of critical ambient operating temperatures. Presented concept is scalable and can be implemented with no effect on aircraft performances and critical system functions.

Arc Fault Detection Methods in DC MEA Distribution Systems

  • University of Strathclyde - Jeffy Thomas, Rory Telford, Puran Rakhra, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1934
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The replacement of non-propulsive loads with electrical equivalents on more-electric aircraft (MEA) will require higher-capacity electrical power distribution systems, integrated with advanced power electronic conversion and protection technologies, arranged to form highly-resilient network architectures. Direct current (DC) distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators as it enables the paralleling of non-synchronised engine off-take generators and reduces the number of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads However, significant challenges in reliably detecting arc fault conditions within high-power DC systems still exist and need to be addressed to ensure high levels of safety and reliability. Arc faults present a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and even potentially fatal conditions. Arc faults are typically intermittent in nature and may arise due to the vibration of loose terminal connections, or as degraded wires contact metal structures. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly aggressive as there is no natural zero-crossing in the current profile, and so can remain exposed for prolonged periods of time if not rapidly detected and isolated. They are also particularly challenging to detect as the reduction in fault current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for detection. This paper will provide an overview of series arc faults in DC systems, presenting both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends and characteristics. It will also offer a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper provides a particular focus on electrical detection methods which utilise feature extraction techniques. These are further categorised in to time-domain, frequency domain and the time-frequency domain. The paper concludes with a discussion on the potential challenge of certifying non-deterministic arc fault detection methods for aircraft applications and discusses the merit and feasibility of achieving a purely deterministic arc fault detection system for future DC aircraft power systems.

Experimental data of a small-size Gas ICE driven Heat Pump (GHP) and comparison of the environmental performance with an electric heat pump

  • Yanmar R&D Europe - Sandro Magnani, Alessandro Bellissima
  • Yanmar Co. Ltd. - Hiroshi Azuma
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0070
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide, whenever thermal energy is required one of the most common supply solution is represented by the adoption of an electric heat pump. Nevertheless, other solutions may represent a valid option and the use of a Gas Heat Pump (GHP), based on an Internal Combustion Engine fed by natural gas, is one of these. The experimental results of the operations of a GHP in a small-size enterprise in central Italy are presented: the test site, with its energy requests and technical constraints is described. Furtherly, a comparison with an electric heat pump is carried out by reproducing its behaviour through a 1-D simulation tool developed in the Simulink environment. The advantages that the thermal generator based on the ICE can bring compared to an electric solution from the technical, economic, and environmental point of view are highlighted. In particular the latter aspect is analysed considering the boundaries of different European Countries, whose energy mix for the electricity production determines different equivalent grid efficiencies. Finally, the main results are summarized in the conclusions, focusing the attention on the main advantages and most critical points which could affect the suitability of the installation of the ICE-based thermal generator instead of an electric heat pump.

Development of a Climate and Altitude Simulation Test Bench for Handheld Power Tools

  • Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences - Artur Martel, Fino Scholl, Dennis Weierter, Maurice Kettner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0033
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
For evaluating the overall suitability of using innovative biofuels in handheld power tools such as chainsaws, trimmers and blowers, under any typical operating condition worldwide, a climate and altitude conditioning test bench was developed at the Institute of Energy Efficient Mobility (IEEM) of Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences. The 6 m³ hermetically sealed and thermally insulated test chamber is large enough to fit the entire power tool. A two-stage refrigeration system with intake air drying and resistance heating allows for realistic temperature conditions to be set in the test chamber, ranging from arctic cold to tropical heat (-20 to 45 °C). Altitudes up to 3,000 m above sea level can be simulated using a throttle valve at the inlet of the chamber and a pressure-controlled rotary piston blower positioned downstream the test chamber outlet. The air-cooled engines to be tested are fully exposed to the ambient conditions inside the test chamber, able to aspirate the conditioned combustion air freely and release both exhaust gas and waste heat into the chamber environment. In order to control the power tools when the chamber is closed, an adaptive remote control system was specially developed. It enables automatic engine start by cable pull (e.g. for cold start testing), engaging the choke valve as well as operating the throttle lever automatically. This paper discusses the development process, the design, the operating limits as well as the transient and stationary operating behavior of the climate and altitude simulation test bench.

Conceptual Design, Structural and Material Optimization of a Naval Fighter Nose Landing Gear for the Estimated Static Loads

  • K Suresh, C Senthil Kumar - Swagata Paul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1911
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The landing of naval aircraft on carrier is hard because of touch down, due to the shorter deck than the normal runway. The aircraft hit the deck at more than twice the vertical speed compared to typical landing on decent runway. Naval aircraft land by getting arrested with a metal rope or cable and brakes hard. They may also take-off with a catapult, which is some running device that pulls the nose gear forward at high acceleration. Most of the navy aircraft are equipped with tricycle landing gear mainly to withstand high landing load, ease of landing during cross winds and more stable motion in the ground. The navy Nose Landing Gear (NLG) structural assembly presents complex structural geometry and critical functionalities. The landing gear components are subjected to high static and dynamic loads, so they must be appropriately designed with materials of high mechanical characteristics that meet strength, stiffness and weight requirements. This paper contributes to the shape, size and material optimisation for the NLG of a supersonic naval fighter aircraft. Geometric design and modelling of NLG was done using the software SOLIDWORKS. The identical modal characteristics of the NLG assembly was obtained using ANSYS and by flight test data of an existing aircraft which literally proves the accuracy and suitability of finite element model. Static structural analysis is performed using ANSYS for the critical landing load cases. Iterations including shape, size and material optimisation were done in the NLG; the Reserve factor values are calculated to meet the required static, dynamic and mass characteristics for critical landing conditions.

Development of Joint Sheet Gasket with Reduced Amount of Aramid Fibers

  • Honda R&D Co., Ltd. - Toshiyasu Nagai
  • NIPPON LEAKLESS CORPORATION - Yoshiaki Hamada, Kentaro Yamashita, Koji Akiyoshi
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0026
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Gasket made of joint sheet is widely used for mating surfaces of an engine and a transmission. Ahead of the law enforcement of banning of asbestos usage, Honda had already started to apply non-asbestos gasket using aramid fibers as the substitute material for asbestos all over the world. However, aramid fiber is very expensive while the sealing performance of a joint sheet largely depends on the added amount of aramid fibers. Therefore, when it is adopted, the resulting cost increase becomes an issue. Accordingly, we designed a material aiming at the cost reduction while maintaining the required reliabilities for a joint sheet in real applications mainly by reducing the amount of aramid fibers. According to the required characteristics for a joint sheet, the constituent materials of the middle layer were optimized by combining glass fibers with coarse-grained silica as a reinforcement substance into highly fibrillated aramid fibers as the base material. In addition, the material structure was optimized by adding a skin layer superior in shape-following and sealing against the fastened object. By combining these measures, reduction of aramid fiber amount was achieved without sacrificing required properties. Furthermore, by constructing a dynamic evaluation method considering the operating environment of the engine, it was made possible to evaluate the joint sheet specific performances with high accuracy. As a result, it enabled the development of a joint sheet using a less amount of aramid fibers, realizing low cost together with superior sealing performance with the long lasting durability.

A Structured Assurance Case for Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Airborne Electronic Hardware (AEH)

  • Thales Avionics - Guy-Andre Berthon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1939
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
One particular issue with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components is that they are not developed to avionics industry standards and that their design and development data remain proprietary, hence are not available for review to the levels expected by those standards. The purpose of this research was to assess feasibility and to provide recommendations in how COTS components could be “assured” at system level, i.e. possibly going beyond ED-80/DO-254 for AEH or ED-79A/ARP-4754A standard for systems. Based on a first overview of this question we concluded that on the one hand we could not completely get rid of ED-80/DO-254 or related material, which already provide some clues on how to handle COTS component assurance, and on the other hand, that ED-79A/ARP-4754A, though well suited for a system-level approach, neither specifically target COTS as is nor provides convincing evidence to support COTS assurance whatever their level of integration, their inherent complexity, or their allocated Development Assurance Level (DAL). These considerations naturally guided this research toward recommending a more global, system-wide approach rather than a system-level assurance process. This approach was later elaborated as a so-called “Structured Assurance Case” and revealed itself particularly suited to COTS AEH. It is further elicited in this paper.