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SLD and Ice Crystal Discrimination with the Optical Ice Detector

Collins Aerospace-Kaare J. Anderson, Mark D. Ray
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1934
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recent years have seen increased awareness within the aerospace community of icing hazards posed by conditions beyond those described by 14 CFR Part 25, Appendix C. Engine and airframe manufacturers are now required to certify their products for operation in the presence of supercooled large droplets (SLD) and high ice water content (HIWC) conditions, or alternatively, to implement a detect-and-exit strategy. The latter option implies a need for the capability of detecting Appendix C, SLD, and HIWC conditions, and to discriminate between them. The Optical Ice Detector (OID) technology under development at Collins Aerospace provides the ability to detect and differentiate Appendix C, Appendix O, and Appendix D conditions with a compact cloud lidar system. The OID’s ability to determine bulk cloud phase and water content has been previously demonstrated. Recent development efforts have focused on expanding the OID’s capabilities to also enable differentiation between small droplet clouds and bimodal clouds such as those described by Appendix O. This is enabled through statistical analysis of ensembles of individual lidar cloud reflection signals. Combined with the…

Validation of a Small Modular Multi-Stage Axial Compressor for Ice Crystal Icing Research

Thomas Currie
National Research Council Canada-Martin Neuteboom, Jennifer Chalmers
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1940
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has undergone the development of a Small Axial Compressor Rig for modelling altitude ice accretion in aircraft engines. The rig consists of two axial compressor stages measuring approximately 150mm in diameter, an extension duct to allow residence time for partial melting of ice crystals and a test piece. The axial compressor stages are intended to provide realistic engine conditioning such as fracture, pressure rise, temperature rise and centrifuging of glaciated ice crystals entering the rig. The rig was designed for use in altitude icing wind tunnels such as the NRC’s Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel, The Research Altitude Facility and those of other organization such as NASA Glenn and Braunshwieg University. Previous development work (1.) provided partial validation of the aerodynamic performance of the first compressor stage at 90% power. Recent development work has completed the aerodynamic validation of both the first and the second stages separately as well as verification of the performance of the two combined stages at the full operating conditions. The measured aerodynamic performance has…

Two-way Flow Coupling in Ice Crystal Icing Simulation

Rolls Royce-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Jonathan Paul Connolly, Alex Bucknell, Liam parker, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1966
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerous turbofan power-loss events have occurred in high altitude locations in the presence of ice crystals. It is theorized that ice crystals enter the engine core, partially melt in the compressor and then accrete. This may lead to engine rollback, or shed induced blade damage, surge and/or flameout. The first generation of ice crystal icing predictive models calculate particle trajectories and accretion growth rates using a single flowfield for which there is no accretion on the test piece. Recent work completed at the University of Oxford has created an algorithm to automatically detect the edge of accretion from experimental video data. Using these accretion profiles, numerical simulations were carried out at discrete points in time using a manual meshing process. This work showed that flowfield changes caused by a changing accretion profile had significant effects on the collection efficiency of impinging particles, ultimately effecting the mass of accreted ice and its shape for certain operating conditions. The paper discusses the development of the ICICLE numerical ice crystal icing code to include a fully automated two-way…

An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Ice Accretion Processes on Bridge Cable Models with Different Surface Modifications

Harbin Institute of Technology-Wenli Chen
Iowa State University-Yang Liu, Yihua Peng, Hui Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2018
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the dynamic ice accretion processes on bridge cable models with different surface modifications (i.e., Standard plain, Pattern-indented surface, and helical fillets). The icing experiments were performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). In order to reveal the transient ice accretion processes and the associated aerodynamic loadings on the test models under different icing conditions (i.e., rime vs. glaze), while a high-speed imaging system was used to capture the transient features of the surface water runback and ice accretion over the surface of the cable models, a high-accuracy dual-transducer force measurement system was also utilized to measure the dynamic aerodynamic loadings acting on the ice accreting cable models. It was found that, the addition of surface features (i.e., pattern-indented surface vs. helical fillets) could effectively influence the dynamic ice accretion process and the final ice structures. Based on the temporally-resolved measurements of the aerodynamic drag forces acting on the different cable models, it was found that, while the ice accretion on the…

Active and Passive Control of torsional vibration in Hybrid Powertrain System

Tongji University-Lijun Zhang, Shijuan Zhang, Dejian Meng, Jie Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1460
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Aiming at the vibration issue in hybrid powertrain system, the torsional vibration mechanical model containing engine,motor and planetary gear subsystems was established. The transient vibration response of typical working condition and modes were analyzed through typical power control strategy ,and the active and passive control of torsional vibration in vehicle hybrid powertrain system was proposed. The active control method of the motor torque was designed and the vehicle shaking vibration was improved. The resonance of the planetary gear system was improved with passive control method by adding the torsional vibration absorbers to the engine and motor. The vehicle shaking vibration and the torsional vibration of the planetary gear system were both improved through the active and passive control.

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

Michigan Technological University-Karan Gundre, Andrew Barnard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1462
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones. The intensity probe is manufactured using rapid prototyping and the executable software that goes with the probe is designed in NI LabVIEW. The entire setup uses inexpensive parts to lower the cost and modern software to compensate for the errors due to these parts.…

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani, Vidya Marri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1548
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. The method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries. Results of this optimization method are discussed and a design guideline for the oil pressure relief groove is disclosed.

A Computational Process to Effectively Design Seals for Better Wind Noise Performance

Dassault Systemes SIMULIA-Robert Powell, Sivapalan Senthooran, Philippe Moron
Jaguar Land Rover-Nicholas Oettle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1472
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Ability to assess noise transmitted through seals to cabin interiors early in the design process is very important for automotive manufacturers. When seal design is inadequate, noise transmitted can dominate the interior noise, making the wind noise performance of the vehicle unacceptable. This may cause launch delays costing a great deal of money and loss of sales. Designing seals using conventional experimental processes is challenging, since the location and strength of flow noise sources are not known when the seal design is planned. Making changes to the seal system after the tooling stage is expensive for OEMs, as the supplier must cover tool and redesign costs. Deliberate overdesign by adding multiple layers of seals everywhere reduces profit by raising part and manufacturing costs. There is a strong motivation to use reliable computational capabilities to predict interior noise transmitted through seals early in the design process to address these challenges, designing seals right the first time. The current study presents a computational process that can be used to predict interior noise transmitted through seals early in…

Door Closure Sound Quality Engineering Process

Bruel & Kjaer North America, Inc.-Todd Freeman
Brüel & Kjaer Sound And Vibration A/S-Bret Engels
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1523
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
An important factor contributing to a customer’s subjective perception of a vehicle, particularly at the point-of-purchase, is the sound created by the passenger doors during closure events. Although these sounds are very short in duration the key systems that control the sounds produced can be highly coupled. Similarly, the necessary efforts required to understand key design criteria affecting the sound can also be highly complex. Within this paper sub-systems affecting the door closure sound are evaluated to understand key structural properties and behaviors toward the contribution to the overall sound produced. This begins with the subjective preferences of typical sounds and the difficulties with both measuring and reproducing these sounds appropriately and leads directly to the target setting and target cascading process. With targets in place, it becomes important to link them with physical measurements of the vehicle and door system to identify the key controlling mechanisms that can be affected through design. The behavior of the door system during a closure event is key for the sound produced and can be studied to understand…

Method development for half shaft joint characterization to predict and evaluate its influence on low idle vibration in vehicle.

FCA US LLC-Wei Yuan, Ahmad Abbas, Francisco Antonio Sturla
Siemens PLM Software-Saeed Siavoshani, Prasad Balkrishna Vesikar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1558
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Method development for half shaft joint characterization to predict and evaluate its influence on low idle vibration in vehicle. Author: Prasad Vesikar, Saeed Siavoshani, Siemens PLM Yuan Wei, FCA LLC In conventional IC engine powered vehicles, engine low idle vibrations of vehicle between 20 to 50Hz range is very common NVH issue. Engine excitations pass through mounts and half shafts to body structure. Half shaft designs are observed to be major influencing factor in managing these low idle vehicle vibrations. Half shaft’s dynamic characteristics are mainly dependent upon the universal joints design in the shaft. To evaluate the half shaft designs for its influence on the low idle vibration in early phase of vehicle program, predictive model of shaft is required to be generated. The shafts at low idle engine running condition are at specific pre load and shafts needs to be characterized under that preload to use in the full vehicle predictive modeling. Half shaft manufacturers are generally only characterize shaft joints for its frictional behavior however for predictive modeling the stiffness and damping…