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Simulation of the Effect of Altitude and Rotational Speed on Transient Temperatures of Rotating Components

FCA US LLC-Dipan Arora
OPTUMATICS, LLC-Muhanad Hendy, AbdelRahman Hekal
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0003
To be published on 2019-03-29 by SAE International in United States
During vehicle development process, it is required to estimate potential thermal risk to vehicle components. Several authors have addressed this topic in earlier studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. For evaluation of potential thermal issues, it is desired to estimate the component temperature profile for a given duty cycle. Therefore, the temperature and exposure time at each temperature have to be estimated for each vehicle duty cycle. The duty cycle represents the customer usage of the vehicle for a variety of vehicle speeds and loadings. In this article, we focus on thermal simulation of rotating components such as prop shaft, drive shaft, and half shaft boots. Though these components temperatures can be measured in drive cell or road trips, the instrumentation is usually a complicated task. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they either require physical contact or cannot withstand high-temperature environment in the vehicle underhood or underbody. In this article, a numerical transient thermal analysis for a rotating shaft in the presence of a radiation heat source is presented.…
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A Simplified Approach Towards Draft Control in Hydraulic Machineries for Component/Cost Reduction

Mahindra Mahindra, Ltd.-Sukrit Mittal, Rishabh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0102
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Draft control is a mechanism primarily provided in Tractors to maintain the penetration of its rear attachment (plough) in ground, such that there isn’t a condition of overload on the machine, i.e., the operation remains under control parameters. With time, the concept was introduced in excavators too, for controlling the cutting-edge penetration of bucket in the ground. The technologies currently employed by global construction equipment manufacturers involve complex electronic components like John Deere is using Nano-sensors and ECU, KOMATSU uses stroke sensors in hydraulic cylinders to map real time position of the bucket and hence control the penetration depth, etc. The output of most of these systems are driver warnings, on the dash panel. Even if the system is automated, it involves additional components to automate the draft control. The concept proposed in this paper not only reduce the number of components, but makes the system more reliable shifting from electronic sensing to mechanical sensing. Besides, the system is inherently automated without any additional cost/components. The system uses a pressure relief valve to sense the…

Wheel Durability and Life Improvement - Valve Hole Position Optimization in Commercial Vehicle Wheel Using Segmental Loading Conditions - FEA Approach

Wheels India Ltd-Muthuraj Ramasamy, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan, Srinivas Ragothaman, Hariprasad Ananda, Deepa Praphu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0316
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
In Automotive, Steel wheels are exponentially replaced by Aluminum wheels because of its feather light, agile performance and better acceleration. One such widely used size is 11.75 x 22.5 wheels for trucks and trailer segment. During the design stage of 11.75 x 22.5 wheel, the valve hole was placed away from the stress concentration zone to reduce the stress on the holes and also the design was validated through all conventional wheel rim testing methodology’s (Like CFT, RFT and Bi-axial) and the wheel passed all the test requirements. During the field trials, failures were observed as noticed on the valve holes, despite of this hole was away from stress concentration region. Understood from the field trials that, the regular testing was not able to simulate the real field conditions for this particular size and changed the boundary condition in our FEA to simulate the actual conditions. After changing the boundary conditions, we could able to observe more stress in valve hole and to strengthened the hole,moved the hole close to stress concentration region and observed…

Steering Control of the Off-highway Vehicles

IIT Bombay-Srikant Sukumar
John Deere India Pvt Ltd-Bharat Joshi, Vinit Jawale, Ojas Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0108
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Steering is integral system of any vehicle to achieve direction control. With driver's inputs, as steering wheel is turned, the steering mechanism is operated to turn the road wheels to route the vehicle on desired path. This Paper studies the different steering architectures and the learning is applied to improve the Off-highway vehicles' steering control. Off-highway vehicles have traditionally been using Hydrostatic Power Steering (HPS) mechanism with no feedback controls. This mechanism consists of inherent limitations to vehicle efficiency, reliability and control preciseness. In this paper, HPS is modeled using 1D simulation tools from the system parameters and derived equations. The results are plotted and discussed to acknowledge the merits and demerits of existing system which helped in proposing the alternate steering solution. Different steering architectures are evaluated and trade-off study performed to choose the Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS) architecture. The mathematical equations behind the Electro-Hydraulic steering system are derived and couple of control strategies (like PID controller and state-feedback controller) are applied to minimize the error between commanded and actual road wheel angle. Non-linear…

Approach to Model Thermistor Based AC Compressor Cut-Off/Cut-In Phenomenon in 1D Simulation of Mobile Air Conditioning

Tata Motors Ltd-Shubham Singhal, Sambhaji Jaybhay, Ritambhara Dubey, Sangeet Kapoor
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0287
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Considering today’s competitive environment in automobiles, the MAC (Mobile Air Conditioning) systems should deliver good cooling performance, be energy efficient and cost effective. In order to optimize MAC’s performance, 1D CAE simulation is preferred to predict vehicle level AC system performance, components sizing and address risks like freezing of evaporator core. Thermistor based AC Cut Off/Cut-In logic is incorporated in MAC systems to prevent freezing of evaporator core at moderate and lower ambient conditions and liquid refrigerant flow to AC compressor. This paper addresses the approach followed to simulate the physical phenomenon of AC Cut Off/Cut-In in 1D CAE. Currently, during AC system performance simulation, we can predict cabin cooldown performance for severe ambient conditions (>40°C, higher solar load) with good accuracy, as AC compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-In due to thermistor doesn’t occur. In case of moderate ambient conditions (~35°C, moderate solar load), compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-In takes place and the simulation model is able to predict the cabin cooldown performance only till first event of compressor Cut-OFF in line with physical test. Hence, to accurately predict cabin cool-down…

Design, Analysis, Simulation And Development of a Ravigneaux Gear-Train

ARAI-Enanko Moulick, Kiran Wani, Karan Kapoor, Ankit Rawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0250
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
With increased vehicular traffic density a trend has been observed where customers have started preferring automatic transmission in place of its manual version. This Automatic transmission not only shifts the gear automatically, with the help of sensors and actuators, but they are also tuned for better performance of the vehicle in terms of fuel efficiency and emission. This all comes at the cost of power consumption from the battery, increment in cost, weight and complexity. The main parts of an automatic transmission include Torque Convertor, Sensors, Actuators, Transmission Control Unit (TCU) with the epicyclic gear-train being the heart of it. In terms of use in the automotive, a system of epicyclic gear-train can provide only 2 gear ratios. Ravigneaux gear-train is the modified version of epicyclic gear-train where there are two set of Planet gears and Sun gears or Ring gears thereby capable of giving 4 gear ratios with a single system. This paper discusses the design analysis and optimization of Ravigneaux Gear-train. To compare it with Simpson gear-train, simulation of both the gear-trains are…

Virual Road Torque Data Collection Application

Tata Motors Ltd.-Dattatreyudu Mullapudi, Popat Rajput, Mithun Chaskar, Santosh Gosavi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0289
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The traditional method of collecting the road torque data of a vehicle is by instrumenting and running the vehicle on different road terrains. In recent times, we are receiving repeated requests to conduct these exercises for a vehicle program based for its application and different powertrain configurations. Each of these measurements cost and consumes valuable resources of the company in collecting the data and analyzing the data. These challenges triggered us to develop an application, which will give us quick estimate of the required parameters from road torque measurements in the absence of physical prototype. The developed application will reduce the time required to conduct road torque measurements by quickly assessing the change in drivability performance with respect to the changes in different driveline parameters and to reduce the repetition of physical measurements in the cases of update in engine calibration for the vehicles built for different applications. The scope of this work is to estimate the demand torque at the driver wheels, gearshift pattern and gear utilization percentage of a vehicle by taking the…

A Test Methodology for Vehicle Wind Noise Reduction and Acoustic Quality Improvement

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Swamy Mukkera, Senthilkumar Raamya Premkumar, Deshpande Samar, Prasath R
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0216
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Aeroacoustics of vehicles is becoming an important design criteria as it directly affects passenger’s comfort. The wind noise at highway speeds (>80KMPH) is a critical quality concern under normal and crosswind conditions and dominant factor in assessing acoustic comfort of the vehicle. Wind noise is caused by the vortex air flow around a vehicle body and air leakage through the sealing gaps of attached parts. This majorly contributes to high frequency noise (>250Hz). Accurate identification and control of noise sources and leakage paths result in improved acoustic comfort of the vehicle. In this paper, aero-acoustic quality characteristics of validation prototype vehicle are studied. The major wind noise sources and leakage paths in the vehicle are identified through in-house blower set up in the semi anechoic room. The overall wind noise level and articulation index of vehicle at various speeds are determined through on- road measurements. The improvement in the vehicle articulation index (AI) by 10% and reduction in noise level by 5 dB (A) are achieved through design modification of seals, door structure and trim…

AMT Reverse Gear Engagement Dynamics and Control.

Tata Motors Ltd.-Gaurang Prajapati, Amar Penta, Prasad Warule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0046
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Now a day’s automated manual transmissions (AMT) are getting popular because of hassle-free gear shifting and improved fuel economy. OEMs are talking about converting their existing manual gearbox to AMT gearbox with solution like hydraulic or electric AMT kit, which just replaces the manual shift mechanism converting it to AMT. Generally, in manual gear box, the operational principal of reverse gear is sliding mesh. Due to sliding mesh, gear arrangement can creates interruption for gearshift. In this paper, reverse gear shift process and its operational difficulty at different operating condition has been studied and analysed in detail. Based on status of vehicle, to ease the gearshift, optimized flow process is proposed. The control method that increases probability of smooth and quick shifting in all operating condition is discussed in detail. The developed control model has been in implemented on real vehicle and it results are discussed.

Test Methodology for Transmission Breather

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Yogesh Manohar Tongaonkar, Hiral Patel, Vishveshvar Tendulkar, Vikas Bhosale
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0339
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Breather assembly is mounted on transmission to maintain the pressure equilibrium inside transmission. Breather allows the transmission to breathe air when the air inside transmission expands or contracts due to heating or cooling of lubricating oil during vehicle running. Breather allows the hot air to escape and cool air to enter into the transmission to prevent overheating issue. Failure of breather assembly can lead to pressure buildup inside transmission and further leading to leakage from transmission oil seals. Oil leakage through the breather assembly is governed by parameters such as opening pressure, location and orientation of breather etc. The transmission undergoes different operating conditions of input speed, load, temperature, road banking & slope etc. Also, breather assembly is designed and positioned in such a way that there is no leakage through breather due to oil splash inside the transmission. The paper gives details of leakage issue observed at vehicle level and methodology derived to simulate the same on test bench. Information of vehicle level tests carried out and conditions under which leakage occurred, was used…