Your Selections

Parts and Components
Parts
Bearings
Cables
Compressors
Counterfeit parts
Fasteners
Bolts
Nuts
Screws
Washers
Fittings
Gears
Hardware
Mountings
Nozzles
Pumps
Seals and gaskets
Splines
Synchros
Valves
Show Only Newly Added Content My Access Full Text Content

Collections

Complimentary Content
Journal Articles Magazine Articles Open Access TBMG Articles Tech Insights White Papers

File Formats

2D/3D Parts Configurator (195) ePUB (9982) HTML (19070) PDF (20041) Video (4) Zip (9)

Content Types

Technical Paper (15421) Aerospace Standard (4626) Magazine Article (2097) Ground Vehicle Standard (1022) Aerospace Material Specification (900) SAE ITC E&A Standard (837) Journal Article (737) Special Publication (SP) (118) Magazine Issue (68) Magazine Feature Article (59) Book (28) Professional Development (13) ARINC Standard (11) Medical Design Brief (5) Video (5) Handbook Supplement (HS) (4) Market Research Report (4) Defence Standards - SAE ITC TSC (2) Progress In Technology (PT) (2) Index (1) Journal (1) Solution Notes (1) Standard (1) US Federal Regulations (1) Webinar Recordings (1)

Dates

Sectors

Automotive (14182) Aerospace (10768) Commercial Vehicle (1845) Medical (38) Govt/Defense (18)

Topics

Parts (5161) Bearings (3298) Seals and gaskets (3255) Valves (3212) Hardware (2686) Fittings (2298) Gears (2190) Pumps (1957) Nozzles (1482) Compressors (1259) Cables (1246) Screws (944) Washers (898) Fasteners (836) Bolts (797) Parts and Components (0) Counterfeit parts (0) Nuts (0) Mountings (0) Splines (0) Synchros (0) Identification numbers (2918) Assembling (2439) Steel (2071) Pressure (2017) Simulation and modeling (1580) Heat treatment (1430) Logistics (1397) Technical review (1372) Fibers (1316) Documentation (1296) Tools and equipment (1274) Coatings, colorants, and finishes (1235) Suppliers (1220) Combustion and combustion processes (1218) Corrosion (1142) Engine cylinders (1134) Production (1125) Test procedures (1073) Research and development (1014) Transmissions (967) Diesel / compression ignition engines (922) Optimization (908) Noise (861) Aircraft (836) Sensors and actuators (833) Computer software and hardware (827) Connectors and terminals (818) Mathematical models (794) Wear (775) Durability (762) Tensile strength (755) Spacecraft (736) Drag (733) Plating (721) Aluminum alloys (694)

Authors

Arcoumanis, C. (38) Gavaises, M. (27) Hirabayashi, Hiroshi (26) Nishida, Keiya (25) Johansson, Bengt (23) Battistoni, Michele (22) Lai, Ming-Chia (22) Cavalca, Katia Lucchesi (16) Wang, Jin (16) Ishida, Masahiro (15) Reitz, Rolf D. (15) Sakaguchi, Daisaku (15) Schultz, John R. (15) Smith, James E. (15) Ueki, Hironobu (15) Senda, Jiro (14) Aoyama, Shunichi (13) Lim, Teik C. (13) Milani, M. (13) Moriyoshi, Yasuo (13) Okamoto, Yutaka (13) Powell, Christopher F. (13) Saito, Akinori (13) Sauer, Richard L. (13) Hatamura, Koichi (12) Kobayashi, Takashi (12) Ku, Jentung (12) Mihara, Yuji (12) Nixon, Harvey P. (12) Novak, Gary (12) Samsonov, N. M. (12) Whitelaw, J. H. (12) Farafonov, N. S. (11) Furuyama, Mikio (11) Kagohara, Yukihiko (11) Ono, Akira (11) Payri, R. (11) Postrioti, Lucio (11) Saiki, Kohei (11) Shimizu, Yasuo (11) Suzuki, Takashi (11) Zhao, Hua (11) Achtenova, Gabriela (10) Borghi, M. (10) Brooke, Lindsay (10) Cheng, Wai K. (10) Flynn, Michael (10) Greeves, G. (10) Heywood, John B. (10) Houser, Donald R. (10)

Publishers

SAE (18580) TBMG (2054) JSAE (1328) I MECH E (1001) SAEITC (850) ISATA (365) KSAE (210) VDI (180) ATA (148) SIA (145) ARAI (117) RAS (69) NHTSA (65) CEC (59) IBEC (58) SAEA (45) CNR (44) SAEC (42) TUB (34) CTEA (28) CMT (23) SAGE (21) JUMV (20) IRCOBI (19) ITS (18) HFES (14) IATO (13) OMKDK (13) AAAM (11) JGA (9) STAPP (9) UNISA (8) AVL (7) UCD (6) AIAA (4) ASM (4) Battelle (4) SupplierB (4) FICT (3) IAATM (3) Honda (2) WorldScien (2) Concepts (1) Expert (1) GPO (1)

Affiliations

Toyota Motor Corp. (226) Ford Motor Company (174) Ford Motor Co. (173) Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (122) Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (91) Southwest Research Institute (65) Toyota Motor Corporation (56) Hyundai Motor Co. (55) NASA Johnson Space Center (49) General Motors Corp. (47) Mazda Motor Corp. (45) Argonne National Laboratory (44) Mitsubishi Motors Corp. (44) Chrysler Corp. (41) General Motors Corporation (41) Hyundai Motor Company (40) The Boeing Company (40) University of Bath (40) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (39) Politecnico di Torino (39) NASA Ames Research Center (38) Denso Corp. (37) Daido Metal Co., Ltd. (36) Caterpillar Tractor Co. (35) Robert Bosch GmbH (35) University of Michigan (35) General Motors Company (34) General Electric Co. (32) University of Tokyo (32) Hitachi, Ltd. (31) Renault (31) Electroimpact Inc. (30) University of Wisconsin-Madison (30) Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd. (29) AVL List GmbH (28) Purdue University (28) Research Laboratories, General Motors Corp. (28) Taiho Kogyo Co., Ltd. (28) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (27) Sandia National Laboratories (27) University of Hiroshima (27) Chalmers University of Technology (26) Chiba Univ. (25) Hino Motors, Ltd. (25) The Timken Co. (25) Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (25) Wayne State University (25) Dana Corp. (24) Nippondenso Co., Ltd. (24)

Committees

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies (1572) E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems (1169) Engine and Airframe Technical Standards Committee (TSC) (837) AE-8C1 Connectors Committee (404) AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee (207) ACBG Rolling Element Bearing Committee (190) AMS CE Elastomers Committee (179) AE-7A Generators and Controls Motors and Magnetic Devices (170) AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee (143) ACBG Plain Bearing Committee (142) AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee (140) AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee (99) AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee (94) Fasteners Committee (89) A-6C2 Seals Committee (81) AMS P Polymeric Materials Committee (71) Hydraulic Tube Fittings Committee (67) SAE IC Powertrain Steering Committee (66) AE-1 Engine Accessory Installations Committee (59) Air Brake Tubing and Tube Ftg Committee (54) AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee (50) ACBG Airframe Control Bearings Group Committee (37) A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee (34) AGE-2 Air Cargo (34) AGE-3 Aircraft Ground Support Equipment Committee (32) Truck and Bus Brake Supply and Control Components Committee (30) Truck and Bus Wheel Committee (28) AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee (27) Signaling and Marking Devices Stds Comm (26) USCAR (26) Materials, Processes and Parts Council (25) A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee (24) Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment Standards Committee (24) Metals Technical Executive Steering Committee (24) Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee (24) A-6C4 Power Sources Committee (23) Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee (23) G-3B Aerospace Fittings Task Group (22) AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install (21) AS-3 Fiber Optics and Applied Photonics Committee (21) Cable Standards Committee (21) CTTC C1, Hydraulic Systems (21) Ship Systems - Fasteners Committee (19) A-5A Wheels, Brakes and Skid Controls Committee (18) AE-4 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Committee (18) E-30 Propulsion Ignition Systems Committee (18) Hydraulic Hose and Hose Fittings Committee (18) Seat Belt Systems Standards Committee (18) Truck and Bus Powertrain Committee (17) AGE-4 Packaging, Handling and Transportability Committee (16)

Events

International Congress & Exposition (1115) SAE International Congress and Exposition (700) International Conference On Environmental Systems (581) SAE World Congress & Exhibition (473) JSAE Spring Conference (452) JSAE Autumn Conference (384) International Off-Highway & Powerplant Congress & Exposition (237) Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition (209) Small Engine Technology Conference & Exposition (166) SAE 2004 World Congress & Exhibition (160) SAE 2006 World Congress & Exhibition (160) International Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition (156) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (154) SAE 2005 World Congress & Exhibition (148) SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (145) SAE 2000 World Congress (144) SAE 2003 World Congress & Exhibition (135) WCX World Congress Experience (134) SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition (131) SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition (130) SAE 2002 World Congress & Exhibition (129) International Body Engineering Conference & Exposition (123) SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition (123) SAE 2001 World Congress (119) Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems (111) Passenger Car Meeting & Exposition (111) SAE 2012 World Congress & Exhibition (111) SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition (102) SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition (94) 2006 FISITA World Automotive Congress (71) Mid-Year Meeting (70) International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (68) International Truck & Bus Meeting & Exposition (64) 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (1992) (61) ISATA 1994 (60) Aerofast Conference & Exposition (59) 1980 Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition (57) Aerospace Congress and Exposition (55) ISATA 1997 (54) International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting (53) Aerospace Atlantic Conference & Exposition (50) International Off-Highway & Powerplant Congress (50) 1977 International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition (49) International Conference on Compressors and Their Systems (48) 2004 FISITA World Automotive Congress (47) ISATA 1993 (47) Vibrations in rotating machinery, I Mech E Conf. 1988-7 (45) 1969 International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition (44) 1978 Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition (44) National Air Transportation Meeting (44)

Magazine

Automotive Engineering® (38) Aerospace & Defense™ Technology (24) Off-Highway Engineering® (18) MOBILITY ENGINEERING™ AUTOMOTIVE, AEROSPACE, OFF-HIGHWAY (11) MOMENTUM The Magazine for Student Members of SAE International® (10) SAE Vehicle Electrification (2) Truck & Off-Highway Engineering™ (2) Digital Aerospace Engineering® (1) Digital Aerospace Engineering™ (1)

Series

General Industry (5) Spotlight on Design (2)

CFD Analysis of a Port Fuel Injection IC Engine to Study Air-Fuel Mixture Preparation and Its Impact on Hydrocarbon Emission and Mixture Homogeneity in Combustion Chamber

  • TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-Arivazhagan G B, Manish Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0005
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
At part load conditions, effective utilization of fuel is critical for drivability of an IC engine driven automobile, with minimum emissions and fuel consumption. It becomes cardinal to study the mixture preparation in engines to understand the injection strategy that helps in achieving the prime objectives of lower emission and reliable operation. To add to the complexity of the problem being studied, the injection phenomenon is rapid, turbulent, multi-phase, two-way coupled (where the continuous phase affects the droplets and vice versa) and involves turbulence length scales and time scales, few orders of magnitude lower compared to the characteristic length in the turbulence integral scale. A methodology is developed in Star-CD and ES-ICE to simulate the mixture preparation in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines.

Mixture Formation and Combustion Evaluation of a Motorcycle Engine Concept Equipped with One Fuel Injector for Each Intake Valve

  • BMW Motorrad-Pedro Gaitan, Frank Schwarz, Rüdiger Eibl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0009
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In light of a more stringent emission legislation and in anticipation of possible future measures to further reduce the real environmental impact of motorcycles, it is necessary to develop engine concepts which are efficient and low on emissions in a wide range of operating points. This poses an important challenge on the development of high performance motorcycles engines as their focus on full load behaviour conflicts sharply with the emission and efficiency demands of the remaining engine load map. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the potential of a port fuel injection (PFI) concept consisting of one individual fuel injector for each intake valve to solve this trade-off. Previous research shows a positive effect of such a setup on mixture formation due to better targeting and atomization, reducing HC emissions and cyclic variations. It also shows improved efficiency, performance and knocking characteristics caused by an enhanced charge cooling effect through open valve injection (OVI). Although the system has been previously investigated, the necessary layout considerations and impacts of the system for a high performance motorcycle engine have not yet been addressed. In this work the mentioned PFI concept was studied using a high performance two-cylinder motorcycle engine. Engine tests were conducted for two injector sets having different static flow values. The results showed improved efficiency and lower HC emissions for higher engine loads, but no performance gain at full load. The reasons for this behaviour were closely analysed by means of CFD simulation and thermodynamic loss analysis of the combustion process. These explanations were further confirmed by additional engine tests using exhaust gas sampling with fast FID. As a final result a set of recommendations for further concept improvement is proposed.

Potential Improvements in Turbofan’s Performance by Electric Power Transfer

  • Hossein Balaghi Enalou
  • Dassault Aviation-Jean-Marc Le-Peuvedic
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1962
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Bleeding in engines is essential to mitigate the unmatched air massflow between low and High Pressure (HP) compressors at low speed settings, thus avoiding unstable operation due to surge and phenomena. However, by emerging the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) the engine is equipped with electrical machines on both high and Low Pressure (LP) spools which enables transfer of power electrically from one spool to another and hence provides the opportunity to operate engine core components closer to their optimum design point at off-design conditions. At lower power setting of the engine, HPC speed can be increased by taking power from LP shaft and feeding it to HP shaft which can lead to the removal of the bleeding system which in turn reduces weight and fuel consumption and help to overcome engine instability issues. Fuel consumption can be decreased by decreasing inconsistent thrust with the aircraft mission for flight and ground idle settings. This paper investigates the idea of power circulation between shafts using a turbofan model developed using Intermediate Control Volume (ICV) method. Results show considerable improvement in efficiency while dynamic response for severe transient maneuvers is also improved considerably with the new control configuration.

Power Dissipation Optimization for Solid State Power Control Modules in the Aircraft Secondary Power Distribution System

  • UTC Aerospace Systems-Neno Novakovic, Milorad Manojlovic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1930
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In the last two decades, an aerospace industry trend in the secondary power distribution concept has been dominated by power electronics technology which includes power converters and Power Control Modules based on Solid State Power Control (SSPC) switching elements. These Power Control Modules, grouped around microprocessor based controllers and combined in a single electronic chassis, have become a backbone of electrical power distribution systems on all major commercial and military transport aircraft. Due to the resistive properties of the semiconductor-based SSPC devices, whose behaviors can be described as nonlinear functions of ambient operating temperature, power distribution system integration with SSPCs is challenged and heavily affected by operating temperatures and power dissipation limits. Although aircraft compartments where Power Control Modules are located are considered temperature and pressure controlled, high ambient operating temperatures are possible and expected. For that reason, Power Control Modules with multiple SSPC channels, at room ambient operating temperature, cannot utilize maximum power capacity, which means that a certain number of power control channels cannot be used for power distribution. As a result of that, to accommodate power dissipation potential growth over extended ambient operating temperature range, additional hardware has to be used. With the emergence of more electric aircraft, where a significant number of AC and DC type aircraft electrical loads have been connected to Power Control Modules, total power dissipation limitation with additional hardware has been creating significant impact on total equipment weight and cost. In an attempt to increase power density of the Power Control Modules and to mitigate the risk of permanent damage caused by excessive power dissipation at high ambient operating temperatures, this article presents a unique systems integration concept based on power management and electrical load shed as a function of critical ambient operating temperatures. The presented concept is scalable and can be implemented with no effect on aircraft performances and critical system functions.

DC Arc Fault Detection Methods in MEA Distribution Systems

  • University of Strathclyde-Jeffy Thomas, Rory Telford, Puran Rakhra, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1934
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Direct current (DC) for primary power distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators for MEA applications to enable the paralleling of non-synchronized engine off-take generators, and to enable the reduction of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads. However, a significant challenge in the use of DC systems is the reliable detection of arc faults. Arcing presents a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and potentially fatal conditions. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly challenging to detect as the associated reduction in system current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for fault detection. This paper provides an overview of series arc faults in DC systems and presents both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends, characteristics and discriminating features. It also presents a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on the unique challenges and opportunities for the application of both deterministic and probabilistic methods in MEA systems.

Experimental Data of a Small-Size Gas ICE Driven Heat Pump (GHP) and Comparison of the Environmental Performance with an Electric Heat Pump

  • Yanmar Co. Ltd.-Hiroshi Azuma
  • Yanmar R&D Europe-Sandro Magnani, Alessandro Bellissima, Piero Danti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0070
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide, whenever thermal energy is required one of the most common supply solution is represented by the adoption of an electric heat pump. Nevertheless, other solutions may represent a valid option and the use of a Gas Heat Pump (GHP), based on an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) fed by natural gas, is one of these. The experimental results of the operations of a GHP in a small-size enterprise in central Italy are presented: the test site, with its energy requests and technical constraints is described. Furtherly, a comparison with an electric heat pump is carried out by reproducing its behavior through a 1-D simulation tool developed in the Simulink environment. The advantages that the thermal generator based on the ICE can bring compared to an electric solution from the technical, economic, and environmental point of view are highlighted. In particular the latter aspect is analyzed considering the boundaries of different European Countries, whose energy mix for the electricity production determines different equivalent grid efficiencies. Finally, the main results are summarized in the conclusions, focusing the attention on the main advantages and most critical points which could affect the suitability of the installation of the ICE-based thermal generator instead of an electric heat pump.

Development of a Climate and Altitude Simulation Test Bench for Handheld Power Tools

  • Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences-Artur Martel, Fino Scholl, Dennis Weierter, Maurice Kettner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0033
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
A climate and altitude conditioning test bench was developed at the Institute of Energy Efficient Mobility (IEEM) of Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences to evaluate the overall sustainability of using innovative biofuels in handheld power tools such as chainsaws, trimmers and blowers under any typical operating condition worldwide. The 6 m3 hermetically sealed and thermally insulated test chamber is large enough to fit the entire power tool. A two-stage refrigeration system with intake air drying and electric heating allows for realistic temperature conditions to be set in the test chamber, ranging from arctic cold to tropical heat (-28 to 45 °C). Altitudes of up to 3500 m above sea level can be simulated using a throttle valve at the inlet of the chamber and a pressure-controlled rotary screw compressor positioned downstream the test chamber outlet. The air-cooled engines to be tested are fully exposed to the ambient conditions inside the test chamber, are able to aspirate the conditioned combustion air freely and release both exhaust gas and waste heat into the chamber environment. In order to control the power tool’s operation when the chamber is closed, an adaptive remote control system was specially developed. It enables automatic engine start-up by cable pull (e.g. for cold start testing), engaging the choke valve as well as operating the throttle lever automatically.

Development of the Multi-Resolution Modeling Environment through Aircraft Scenarios

  • University of Central Florida-Jaeho Kim, Kyungeun Lee, Mario Marin, Gene Lee, Luis Rabelo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1923
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Multi-Resolution Modeling (MRM) is one of the key technologies for building complex and large-scale simulations using legacy simulators. MRM has been developed continuously, especially in military fields. MRM plays a crucial role to describe the battlefield and gathering the desired information efficiently by linking various levels of resolution. The simulation models interact across different local and/or distance area networks using the High Level Architecture (HLA) regardless of their operating systems and hardware. The HLA is a standard architecture developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and is meant to create interoperability among different types of simulators. Therefore, MRM implementations are very dependent on Interoperability and Composability. This paper summarizes the definition of MRM-related terminology and proposes a basic form of MRM system using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) simulators and HLA. In addition, this paper explores the implementation of an aircraft scenario using HLA.

Durability Improvement of Cylinder Head in Alternate Fuel Engines

  • TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-Balasubramanian Thiruvallur Loganathan, Duraikkannan Elumalai, Phaneesh Kumaraswamy, V Lakshminarasimhan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0055
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Alternate fuels like LPG and CNG are beneficial in terms of operating cost and emissions as well. They also contribute to reduce CO2 emissions. These gas fuels are known for its problems in engines including wear of parts. Cylinder head valve - seat wear is higher in gas engines. This paper discusses the experimental work on reduction of valve -seat wear in 3 wheeler engine.

Development of Joint Sheet Gasket with Reduced Amount of Aramid Fibers

  • Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Toshiyasu Nagai, Shinsuke Mochizuki
  • Nippon Leakless Corporation-Yoshiaki Hamada, Kentaro Yamashita, Koji Akiyoshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0026
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Gaskets made of joint sheet are widely used for mating surfaces in engines and transmissions. Before the regulation was issued for restrictions of asbestos usage as a hazardous substance, Honda had already developed non-asbestos joint sheets using aramid fibers substituting for asbestos and started applying them to the products sold worldwide. However, aramid fiber is significantly expensive but, on the other hand, the amount of aramid fiber mixed in a joint sheet will largely influence the sealing performance. Thus, when aramid fiber is applied, cost increase becomes a concern. With this background, a gasket material was designed for reducing the cost without sacrificing the required reliability as a joint sheet assuming the actual applications. The cost was reduced mainly by reducing the amount of aramid fibers used. Based on the required properties for joint sheets, the constituent materials of the middle layer were optimized by combining glass fibers, mixed with coarse-grained silica as a reinforcement substance, with a base material of highly-fibrillated aramid fibers. The material structure was also optimized by adding a skin layer to get an excellent surface-fitting performance and adhesion to the part to be fastened. By combining these measures, the amount of aramid fibers was successfully reduced while satisfying the required properties. Furthermore, by constructing a dynamic evaluation method that considers the operating environment of the engine, it was made possible to evaluate the performances, as a unit component, of a joint sheet with high accuracy. As a consequence, the established material enabled the development of joint sheets using less aramid fiber, producing superior sealing performance with long-lasting durability at a lower cost.