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Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

Purdue University-Andrew Robison, Andrea Vacca
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0827
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Gerotor pumps are common in low pressure automotive applications such as fuel delivery, lubrication, and automatic transmissions. Recent automotive trends, such as electrification, demand these units to perform in more demanding conditions, so modern design methodologies must be developed to meet these challenges. Previous work in gerotor gear geometry design used the kinematic flow ripple as an objective function during extensive profile optimization. Although more sophisticated methods exist for predicting the flow ripple, the kinematic flow ripple was used to reduce the computation time of optimizations. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. As a way to counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual…

Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on VPG

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, Xin Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0170
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The durable load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by vehicle road load acquisition and load decomposition in the industry, and Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) is gradually replacing this technical route. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel six-component force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the durable load spectrum in the early stage of development.

Implementation of a New Predictive 0D/1D/3D Process for the Heat Release Prediction of a Gasoline Engine in the Early Development Stage.

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Kenan Mustafa, Nicholas Winder, Richard Osborne
University of Brighton-Robert Morgan, David Mason, Morgan Heikal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0468
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The automotive market need for shorter development cycles, as well as wider environmental concerns (climate change and poor air quality in cities), have promoted a revolution in digital engineering. Virtual hardware screening and engine calibration, before hardware is available, is a highly time and cost-effective way of reducing testing and shorting the time to bring product to market. Model-based development workflows, to be predictive, need to offer realistic combustion rate responses to different engine characteristics. The current approach, however, relies on empirically or experienced derived combustion responses, making the exploration of unconventional solution challenging. An alternative method that is less data and user experience dependent, is therefore needed. In this work a pragmatic engine development process based on a 0D combustion Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) and in-cylinder cold CFD simulations is presented. Changes in Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) and its dissipation (ϵ) in response to load and Start of Injection (SOI) have been investigated to develop a physical based map for turbulent mixing time (τ). The correlation reduced the number of cold CFD runs necessary…

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 1: Part Load

Southwest Research Institute-Yanyu Wang, Graham Conway, Chris Chadwell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0241
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Modern spark ignited engines face multiple barriers to achieving higher thermal efficiency. This study investigated the potential of utilizing both continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve engine thermal efficiency at part-load conditions. Six speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. A design of experiment (DoE) approach using the Box-Behnken surface response model was conducted. The DoE results revealed different brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) responses to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift at different operating conditions. Further engine testing was carried out at each speed / load point to confirm the engine efficiency and combustion performance when targeting different valvetrain controls and EGR strategies. The results indicated that utilizing the VVA system could always reduce BSFC at the studied operating conditions. The BSFC reduction was attributed to reduced pumping and incomplete combustion losses. The reduction in losses was attributed to optimizing the amount of hot trapped residuals compared with the fixed valve configuration, and load control through…

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

Daido Steel Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ando
Ikeuchi Seiko Co., Ltd.-Hitoshi Kodama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1116
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In our new Variable compression Turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has multi-link system to control the compression ratio (from 8:1 to 14:1 with this system), the high axial force is required for fastening of multi-link system which has the high input and down-sizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop the fastening bolts of the 1600MPa tensile length. The biggest issue of high strength bolt is delayed fracture with hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for 1600MPa tensile strength bolt by taking into account mass production and low cost. To improve the delayed fracture resistance, we proceeded the optimization of chemical composition and heat treatment condition as follows, 1) high-C and high-Si steel as a base to obtain sufficient strength even at high tempering temperature (around 600 degree) to make the fine and spherical carbide microstructure, 2) combined addition of Si, Cr and Mo as alloying elements for increasing temper softening resistance, 1.5% or more of precipitation hardening type element Mo was required to achieve high temperature tempering. We…

Design of an Electric Drive Transmission for a Formula Student Race Car

Gavin White, Geoffrey Cunningham, Darryl Doyle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1295
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology used to configure an electric drive system for a Formula Student car and the detailed design of a transmission for in-hub motor placement. Various options for the size, number and placement of electric motors were considered and a systematic process was undertaken to determine the optimum configuration and type of motor required. The final configuration selected had four 38 kW in-hub motors connected through a 14.8:1 reduction transmission to 10” wheels. Preliminary design of the transmission design indicated that the overall gear ratio would be best achieved with a two-stage reduction, and in this work an offset primary spur stage coupled to a planetary second stage was chosen. Detailed design and validation of the transmission was conducted in Ricardo SABR and GEAR, using a duty cycle derived from an existing internal combustion Formula Student car. The analysis was conducted in line with ISO 6336 and permitted the examination of the stresses in gear teeth and the prediction of gear and bearing life. A detailed design was proposed with due regard…

Investigation and resolution of gear slippage issue in manual North-South Transmission.

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Santosh C Deshmane, Onkar Gangvekar
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Onkar P. Gurav
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1299
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Gearbox and driveline durability is always been a sensitive subject from both end user and manufacturer’s point of view. Since powertrain is heart of vehicle, naturally it is expected to long last and perform satisfactorily for the entire vehicle life. Sometimes the driveline aggregates especially gearbox might face some issues because of various factors, but this is distinctively noted by the driver since it is one of the important touch point of the vehicle. The gear slippage is a very typical phenomenon observed in automotive gearbox. The issue of gear slippage is very sensitive because it leads to compromising safety of the driver, also it deteriorates gear shift quality and thereby performance of the vehicle. Generally gear slippage is not observed during end of line testing or during early kilometers of vehicle. It is observed after some thousand kilometers, that to initially gear slippage is not observed consistently and that’s why it is difficult to identify at early stage. It is also possible that driving style can contribute in gear slippage i.e. the gear slippage…

Investigation of Maximum Temperature Rise on High Pressure Common Rail Injector Nozzle

Harbin Engineering University-Jianhui Zhao, Kebiao Wei, Pengfei Yue
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0276
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The heat that a nozzle generates under the multi-cycle working conditions and the large pressure difference at the orifice cause the temperature of the nozzle to rise, which affects the injection characteristics. Therefore, an infrared thermal camera was used in this study to examine the temperature distribution in a Bosch common rail injector and the variations of the nozzle maximum temperature rise. The results showed that transient temperature at the nozzle of the injector and the steady-state temperature rise with the increase in the injection pressure and frequency. The effect of the injection pressure was the most significant, and the effect of the injection frequency was small. At different injection frequencies and injection pressures, the maximum temperature rise at the nozzle increased rapidly in the first 10 min, after which it slowly increased. The temperature at the nozzle reach the equilibrium after 30 min of injector operation.
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Nozzle Flow Simulation of GDi for Measuring Near-Field Spray Angle and Plume Direction

Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, María Martínez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0280
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Experimental visualization of current gasoline direct injection (GDi) systems are even more complicated especially due to the proximity of spray plumes and the interaction between them. Computational simulations may provide additional information to understand the complex phenomena taking place during the injection process. Nozzle flow simulations with a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) approach can be used not only to analyze the flow inside the nozzle, but also the first 2-5 mm of the spray. A methodology to obtain plume direction and spray angle from the simulations is presented. Results are compared to experimental data available in the literature. It is shown that plume direction is well captured by the model, whilst the uncertainty of the spray angle measurements does not allow to clearly validate the developed methodology.
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Valve opening and closing event finalization for cost effective valve train of Gasoline engine

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Sanjay Poonia, Amandeep Singh, Narinder Kumar, Jaspreet Singh, Shailender Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1191
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With more stringent emission norm coming in future, add more pressure on IC engine to improve fuel efficiency for survival in next few decades. In gasoline SI engine, valve events have major influence on fuel economy, performance and exhaust emissions. Optimization of valve event demands for extensive simulation and testing to achieve balance between conflicting requirement of low speed torque, power output, part load fuel consumption and emission. Balance between these requirements will become more critical when designing low cost engine without VVT. Higher compression ratio is an important low cost measure to achieve higher thermal efficiency but creates issue of knocking thereby limiting the low speed performance. The effective compression ratio reduction by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy is one way to achieve higher expansion ratio. But due to backflow at low engine speed it is challenging to implement this strategy. This study is done using 1-D simulation tool and review of testing data using three pressure analyses. Study include four valve timing points (IVO, IVC, EVO, EVC) and assessment of…