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Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior

Sardou Societe Anonyme-Max Sardou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1857
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior Fire is a dramatic issue in aircraft nowadays, especially with composite air crafts. An additional issue is the dangerous use of flammable Li-Ion batteries in a lot of appliances. we propose in order to avoid dramas to produce aircraft interiors, fire doors, cargo bay walls, as well than cargo container able to contain a fire inside them, with our ceramic composite called TOUGHCERAM ®. We have developed a low-cost, ceramic, damage tolerant, this ceramic is flexible between minus 100°C and plus 350°C. TOUGHCERAM ® poly-crystalize between 60°C and 110°C and can be reinforced with fibbers like carbon or basalt one. TOUGHCERAM ® survive 90 minutes to a propane 1900°C torches. TOUGHCERAM ® does not burn, nor smoke. In this paper we will explain how it is possible to develop a fully mineral ceramic offering such unique mechanical and fire properties.
 

System Effects Test Example for Atmospheric Radiation Environment

Honeywell-Laura Dominik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1865
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Galactic cosmic rays and solar rays produce particle cascades in the atmosphere, where resulting particles (mainly high energy neutrons) can interact with components to cause Single Event Effects (SEE). The effects from atmospheric radiation can cause various fault conditions, including corrupted data, processor halts and interrupts, operational errors, and component latch ups requiring a power cycle. As technology trends continue to achieve higher densities and lower voltages, semiconductor devices are becoming more susceptible to atmospheric radiation effects. Testing to measure the susceptibility of a component or equipment to atmospheric radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities. Testing can be performed at the component level to measure the device-level susceptibility, or the test can be performed to measure impacts at the equipment level. This paper provides an example of a test intended to measure equipment level effects while irradiating a single component. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the mitigations and protections designed into the equipment.
 

Compensating the Effects of Hazardous External Influences on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1862
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the internal structural elements of the engine. Due to icing the engine components performance change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Similar effect has a volcanic ash sucked into the engine flow-path. The safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influences. The impact of this factors on the engine performance depends on the engine control methods. Therefore, it is relevant to study control methods that allow fully or partly compensate the effect of engine components performance degradation. The focus of this paper is to determine the control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine aimed at solving this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial engine with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of icing and volcanic ash sucking on the engine components performance is conducted. It…
 

A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1963
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for airframe icing, the Messinger Model, by permitting a linear temperature gradient through the ice and water layers. This in turn allows prediction of the time over which water exists in isolation on an initially warm surface, before an ice layer forms. This is of particular interest to engine icing, as surfaces may initially be significantly above freezing temperature, before cooling on exposure to ice particles. The method is solved in a multi-step approach, where the overall exposure time…
 

Semi-empirical Modelling of Erosion Phenomena for Ice Crystal Icing Numerical Simulation

ONERA-Virgile Charton, Pierre Trontin, Philippe Villedieu
SAFRAN Aircraft Engines-Gilles Aouizerate
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1967
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to develop a semi-empirical model for erosion phenomena under ice crystal condition, which is one of the major phenomena for ice crystal accretion. Such a model would be able to calculate the erosion rate caused by impinging ice crystal on accreted ice layer. This model is based on Finnie [1] and Bitter [2] [3] solid/solid collision theory which assumes that metal erosion due to sand impingement is driven by two phenomena: cutting wear and deformation wear. These two phenomena are strongly dependent on the particle density, velocity and shape, as well as on the surface physical properties such as Young modulus, Poisson coefficient and surface hardness. However, as cutting erosion is mostly driven by tangential velocity and is more effective for ductile eroded body, deformation erosion is driven by normal velocity and is more effective for brittle eroded body. Several researchers based their erosion modelling on these two phenomena such as Hutchings et al. [4] for deformation erosion, or Huang et al. [5] and Arabnejad et al. [6] for…
 

Material Properties of Granular Ice Layers Characterized Using a Rigid-Body-Penetration Method: Experiments and Modeling

Technical University of Darmstadt-Markus Schremb, Kenan Malicevic, Louis Reitter, Ilia Roisman, Cameron Tropea
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2034
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing poses a severe problem for numerous engineering applications comprising aviation, road traffic, shipping, wind turbines, and high-voltage power lines and insulators. Not only ice accretion itself but also shedding of accreted ice layers represents a severe hazard. Ice layers shedding from interior jet engine parts may damage parts being downstream in the engine, while ice layers shedding from wind turbine blades may seriously harm pedestrians or technical systems nearby the wind turbine. The material properties of an ice layer play an important role for the adhesion of the ice layer to the substrate below, as well as the potential harm in the case of shedding. In the present study, the strength of wet granular ice layers is characterized based on the measurement of dynamic projectile penetration into the ice layer. A certain amount of water is infused into a dry granular ice layer characterized in terms of grain size and porosity, resulting in a defined composition of the wet ice layer. The effective yield strength of the granular layer is estimated from the analysis…
 

Experimental Investigations of an Icing Protection System for UAVs

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Richard Hann, Kasper Borup, Artur Zolich, Håvard Vestad, Martin Steinert, Tor Johansen
UBIQ Aerospace-Kim Sorensen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2038
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
UAV icing is a severe challenge that has only recently shifted into the focus of research. Today, there is a lack of mature mitigation technologies available. We are working on the development of an electro-thermal icing protection technology called D•ICE. As part of the design process, an experimental test campaign at the Cranfield icing wind tunnel has been conducted. This paper describes the icing protection system and shares experimental results on the capability for icing detection and anti-icing. Icing detection is achieved with an algorithm that evaluates temperature signals that are induced on the leading-edge of the wing. A baseline signal is generated during dry (icing cloud off) conditions and compared to a signal during wet (icing cloud on) conditions. Due to significant differences in the heat transfer regime, the system can differentiate between these two states. The experiments show that our system can reliably predict icing conditions based on this principle. Furthermore, the anti-icing capability of the system is proven for two icing cases. The minimum required heat fluxes to keep the surface ice…
 

Microwave Technique for Liquid Water Detection in Icing Applications

Univ of Southern Queensland-Ramiz Saeed
Univ. of Southern Queensland-John Leis, David Buttsworth, Khalid Saleh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1930
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
We have performed preliminary experiments as an initial step in demonstrating a non-intrusive, microwave-based measurement technique that can discriminate between air flows with- and without suspended water droplets in a wind tunnel at approximately 28 m/s. The objective of the paper, when complete, is to quantify the accuracy and precision of the method within the context of liquid water content measurement in ice crystal icing wind tunnel experiments.
 

Focus on challenges in SLD regime : reemitted droplets models

Dassault Aviation-Francois Caminade
Dassault-Aviation-Loïc frazza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2001
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A lot of studies have been carried out over the last decades on SLD ice accretion challenges. Many of them referred to modelling SLD physics like break-up, splashing, bouncing, etc… and rely on numerous physics experiments. Different models have been developed In Europe and North-America and have been implemented in several numerical tools, widely in 2D but more and more in 3D. As these tools are intended to be used increasingly among the community, deficiencies have to be deeper investigated. This paper provides some highlights on specific needs linked to SLD impingement and ice accretion, especially for 3D high fidelity computations. The computations presented in this paper are performed with the in-house code AeTher developed by Dassault Aviation. The special feature of this code is that it uses finite element method for solving the impingement and bouncing equations. This leads to some difficulties regarding the reemitted impingement. After presenting the models implemented within the droplet trajectory/impingement (Trontin & Villedieu, 2016), basic validation will be presented with direct impingement on classical geometries as NACA0012 and NACA23012…
 

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1965
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry corresponds to the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA inhouse code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream. Predicted collection efficiency results are presented on various surfaces. The redistribution of particle sizes and mass…