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Multi-level Modeling Methodology for Aircraft Thermal Architecture Design

  • Bombardier Aerospace-Yanik Boutin, Sebastien Beaulac, Stephane Dufresne
  • Concordia University Montreal-Florian Sanchez, Susan Liscouet-Hanke
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1910
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a new methodology to conduct thermal analysis in the conceptual phase of the aircraft development process. Traditionally, thermal analysis is conducted after the system architecture has already been defined. The aircraft system thermal environment evaluation may lead to late design changes that can have a significant impact on the development process. To reduce the risk of late design changes, thermal requirements need to be defined and validated in the conceptual design phase. This research paper introduces a novel multi-level modeling strategy based on a bottom-up approach. It proposes an automatic geometrical simplification procedure for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis, a methodology for the generation of analytical correlations based on highly detailed methods, and a thermal risk assessment approach based on dimensionless numbers. This methodology generates models with the right level of fidelity to conceptual and preliminary design, offers the possibility to assess thermal risk, and defines thermal requirements for the selection of aircraft and systems architectures. A proof-of-concept of the methodology for a simplified test case is presented to highlight the benefits of such multi-level capability.

Safety Analysis of an Airship that Loses Buoyant Gas from the Hull

  • Sheffield Hallam University-Michele Trancossi
  • Universidade Da Beira Interior-Jose Pascoa
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1954
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the physical phenomena that affect a high-altitude airship in the presence of lifting gas losses from the hull. General atmospheric thermodynamics and basic physical principles are adopted to describe the behavior of an airship with envelope failures that generate buoyant gas dispersion or depressurization phenomena. Overpressure that could grant to maintain some controllability during a large part of the descent is assessed by mean of the thermodynamic model of the envelope in the presence of gas losses. An optimization of the inflation parameters is provided and the conditions for avoiding dangerous crashes on the ground and the potential recovery of a damaged vehicle, people and its payload. In particular, the requirements for a slow depressurization is computed by the equilibrium with the atmosphere and then how can it be possible to sustain controlled navigation are determined. A key factor for security relates directly to the capability of preserving some airship balloon overpressure for the longest time possible. This condition can extend much the range of control. Complete forfeit conditions will be determined. In some cases, specific maneuvers could allow configuring the deflated balloon as a parachute, if coupled with adequate safety systems. A general guideline for safety systems has been defined and they show that airship if well created and well governed in emergency conditions will be much safer than any other aerial vehicle.

Feedback on Application of MBSE Approach to an Avionics Subsystem

  • COMAC-Shaofan Zhu, Jian Tang
  • Samares-Engineering-Raphael Faudou, Jean-Marie Gauthier
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1922
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides feedback on using a modelling approach to define an avionics subsystem in the frame of SAE ARP4754A aerospace recommended practices. Feedback concerns the practical use of models to support functional part of the following processes: “requirements capture”, “requirements validation”, and top-level part of “development of system architecture”. A Model-Based Systems Engineering approach has been proposed with a set of modelling tasks concerning views (diagrams, tables), patterns and transformations, and model checking rules. The goal of the approach is to structure functional needs and guide systems engineers in identification and definition of system functional interfaces and of system top level functions. This paper provides returns of experience on the application of that new approach on an industrial avionic case study known as the Onboard Maintenance System by a team mainly used to document centric approach until recently. After some presentation of the pilot case used as experiment, some results are given and there is discussion on several points: the lessons learned during and after application of the MBSE approach to identify use cases, to define black box scenarios and to build the top level functional architecture. Paper provides comments about the approach (e.g. use cases granularity, modelling stop criterion, communication between systems), before starting the design. Then it discusses advantages and drawbacks that were measured during this modelling approach with regards to traditional document centric approach. Paper also provides the challenges identified for wider adoption in the company and the remaining points of attention when extending approach on larger project.

DC Arc Fault Detection Methods in MEA Distribution Systems

  • University of Strathclyde-Jeffy Thomas, Rory Telford, Puran Rakhra, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1934
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Direct current (DC) for primary power distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators for MEA applications to enable the paralleling of non-synchronized engine off-take generators, and to enable the reduction of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads. However, a significant challenge in the use of DC systems is the reliable detection of arc faults. Arcing presents a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and potentially fatal conditions. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly challenging to detect as the associated reduction in system current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for fault detection. This paper provides an overview of series arc faults in DC systems and presents both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends, characteristics and discriminating features. It also presents a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on the unique challenges and opportunities for the application of both deterministic and probabilistic methods in MEA systems.

Road Simulation Techniques for Reproducing Vehicle Behavior at Motocross Running on a Track

  • Suzuki Motor Corporation-Ryota Shimizu, Hisayuki Sugita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0051
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
A Road Simulator was developed with the aim of reproducing actual vehicle behavior while running on motocross (MX) track in a laboratory. Vehicle behavior while running on an MX track is influenced by various inertial forces, such as jump landing, acceleration at full throttle, reduced speed at full braking and so on, and also load input from the rider to handlebars and footrests. As all influences must be considered, these inertial force and external force should be applied to a vehicle in laboratory tests.

Development of Joint Sheet Gasket with Reduced Amount of Aramid Fibers

  • Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Toshiyasu Nagai, Shinsuke Mochizuki
  • Nippon Leakless Corporation-Yoshiaki Hamada, Kentaro Yamashita, Koji Akiyoshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0026
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Gaskets made of joint sheet are widely used for mating surfaces in engines and transmissions. Before the regulation was issued for restrictions of asbestos usage as a hazardous substance, Honda had already developed non-asbestos joint sheets using aramid fibers substituting for asbestos and started applying them to the products sold worldwide. However, aramid fiber is significantly expensive but, on the other hand, the amount of aramid fiber mixed in a joint sheet will largely influence the sealing performance. Thus, when aramid fiber is applied, cost increase becomes a concern. With this background, a gasket material was designed for reducing the cost without sacrificing the required reliability as a joint sheet assuming the actual applications. The cost was reduced mainly by reducing the amount of aramid fibers used. Based on the required properties for joint sheets, the constituent materials of the middle layer were optimized by combining glass fibers, mixed with coarse-grained silica as a reinforcement substance, with a base material of highly-fibrillated aramid fibers. The material structure was also optimized by adding a skin layer to get an excellent surface-fitting performance and adhesion to the part to be fastened. By combining these measures, the amount of aramid fibers was successfully reduced while satisfying the required properties. Furthermore, by constructing a dynamic evaluation method that considers the operating environment of the engine, it was made possible to evaluate the performances, as a unit component, of a joint sheet with high accuracy. As a consequence, the established material enabled the development of joint sheets using less aramid fiber, producing superior sealing performance with long-lasting durability at a lower cost.

AS36100 Background and Development Record

  • AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR36108
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a record of the development by SAE AGE-2A Air Cargo Sub-Committee of Aerospace Standard AS36100, Air Cargo Unit Load Devices — Performance Requirements and Test Parameters, published 2005-02, and its revision A published 2006-04, intended as a technical reference for airworthiness approval of air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded with either baggage or freight on board civil transport aircraft, and to partly supersede previously used NAS 3610, Cargo unit load devices - Specification for — [ Revision 10, 1990, referenced in TSO C90(c) ].

General Requirements for Noncertified Cargo/Baggage Containers

  • AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1677D
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the design, fabrication, performance and operational testing requirements for lower deck containers for use in main line aircraft which do not require airworthiness certification when loaded under the conditions of compartment restraint and in accordance with the aircraft's Weight and Balance Manual and/or, where applicable according to the aircraft type's approved Weight and Balance Manual, AS36100A or NAS 3610 equivalent base plate restraint for these containers.

Oxygen System and Component Cleaning

  • A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1176A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommended practices for cleaning aircraft oxygen equipment such as tubing, pieces, parts (including regulator and valve parts), cylinders and ground-based equipment that may be used to support aircraft oxygen systems. This revision introduces a cleanliness coding scheme that can be referenced as a requirement, and/or referenced to identify compliance to meeting such a requirement. These methods may apply to gaseous and liquid oxygen equipment. This document specifies work area details, methods to select suitable cleaning agents, cleaning methods, test methods to verify cleanliness level, and methods of packaging the components and parts after cleaning. Technicians designated to clean oxygen equipment must be qualified and trained to clean oxygen equipment. This ARP is applicable to metallic and non-metallic parts.

Air and Air/Surface (Platform) Cargo Pallet Nets

  • AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1131C
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides dimensional, structural and environmental requirements for pallet nets to be used in conjunction with 2.44 m (8 ft) wide pallets described in AS1130. The pallet/net combination are used in freighter versions of certificated aircraft equipped to provide restraint to pallets tested to the requirements of NAS 3610 Class II restraint system. The minimum essential criteria are identified by use of the key word "shall". Recommended criteria are identified by use of the key word "should", and while not mandatory, are considered to be primary importance in providing serviceable, economical, and practical air transport pallet nets. Deviation from recommended criteria should occur only after careful consideration, extensive testing, and thorough service evaluation have shown alternate methods to be satisfactory.