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Risk of Concussion in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Stephanie Pasquesi, Alexander Bruno, Amy Courtney, Stacy Imler, Janine Smedley, Michael Prange
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1218
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There were approximately 2.5 million traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States in 2013, an increase of more than 50% since 2007. In particular, TBI-related ED visits associated with motor vehicle crashes increased by 19% over that period. This estimate includes patients with a diagnosis of concussion or mild TBI (mTBI). Therefore, a better understanding of the risk of concussion associated with motor vehicle crashes is needed. A scientific evaluation of concussion risk is strengthened by objective, quantitative data. However, the diagnostic criteria have broadened; for example, a diagnosis of concussion no longer requires loss of consciousness, and an affected individual may not have a reduced Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Moreover, there are often no objective findings based on current diagnostic imaging techniques. As a result, clinical assessment of mTBI may be based only on self-reported symptoms and history. Peer-reviewed research conducted using field accident data, human surrogates, and biomechanical models have resulted in the development of correlations between head accelerations and the risk of brain injury, which can…
 

Research on the Model of Safety Boundary Condition Based on Vehicle Intersection Conflict and Collision

Tongji University-Biao Wu, Xichan Zhu, Maozhu Liao, Rui Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0132
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Because of the high frequency and serious consequences of traffic accidents in the intersection area, it is of great significance to study the vehicle conflict and collision scenarios of the intersection area. Due to few actual crash accidents occurring in naturalistic driving studies data or field operational tests data, the data of traffic accident database should be also used to analyze the intersection conflict and collision. According to the China Field Operation Test (China-FOT) database and the China in Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database, the distribution feature of the respective intersection scenario type is obtained from the data analysis. Based on the intersection scenario type, two characters of intersection conflict and collision, the environmental character and the vehicle dynamic character, are used to analyze for the integration process of intersection conflict and collision. The environmental character contains several parameters, including environment type, weather and time, which has a strong influence on the collision accidents. Through the environmental parameters analyzing, the distribution model of environmental character is obtained. The vehicle dynamic character includes two vehicle dynamic…
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Thoracic Spine Extension Injuries in Occupants with Pre-Existing Conditions during Rear End Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Mathieu Davis, Jessica Isaacs, Martin Graber, Jacob Fisher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1222
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Certain ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) can significantly alter clinicopathologic spine biomechanics and injury mechanisms in rear end motor vehicle collisions. AS is an inflammatory disease which can lead to structural impairments of the spine secondary to flowing ossification along the spinal column, including ossification across the spinal discs, facet joints, and ligaments, and has been associated with diffuse osteoporosis of the spine. DISH is characterized by excess bone formation along the spinal column, encompassing the annulus and forming the thickest and strongest bridging of the vertebral bodies at the level of the disc space. In both conditions the spine is generally stiffer and more kyphotic than a healthy spine. This paper presents a series of case studies in which a front-seat occupant with ankylosing spondyloarthropathy experienced a moderate- or high-speed rear-end collision and sustained a thoracic spine fracture/dislocation, often with spinal cord injuries. Forward acceleration of the occupant by the seat back in each case resulted in straightening of the kyphotic thoracic spine and consequent extension…
 

Constructing a Concept Vehicle Structure Optimized for Crashworthiness

Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp.-Yangwook Choi, Shawn Freeman, Fabien Letailleur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0613
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) of a vehicle structure at the earliest stages of design is critical as OEMs are pressed to reduce the design time to respond to various demands from market. MDO for the three essential areas of performance of the vehicle structure (NVH, Crash, and Durability) needs the throughput for each of the key disciplines to be approximately in the same range of turn-around time. However, crashworthiness simulation typically takes significantly longer than the others; making it difficult to include crashworthiness in the MDO. There have been many approaches to address crash simulation in a shorter time. Lumped mass-spring method is one of the approaches but has not been widely accepted since it did not replicate the crash behavior accurately and it is hard to convert the results into real design of the structural components. In the paper, a workflow is presented to combine the lumped mass-spring method with paramet-ric optimization to provide solutions to the challenges mentioned.
 

Evaluation of Navigation in Mobile Robots for Long-Term Autonomy in Automotive Manufacturing Environments

Clemson University - ICAR-Jasprit Singh Gill, Mark Tomaszewski, Yunyi Jia, Pierluigi Pisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0505
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Thus far, the focus of autonomous mobile robot researchers has been primarily on developing the functionality and optimizing its performance. In recent times, a number of reference implementations of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and navigation techniques have been made publicly available via the ROS Community. Several implementations have transitioned to commercial products (vacuum robots, drones, warehouse robots, etc.). However, in such cases, in being specialized and optimized for their specific domains of deployment, they became a “black box”. In particular, their success criteria have been based primarily on mission completion and safety of humans around them. In this light, deployment in any new operational design domain (ODD) requires at least a careful verification of performance and often re-optimization. We seek the technological gaps that need to be addressed to ensure the mobile robots are fit for automotive manufacturing environments. Automotive final assembly environments pose significant additional challenges for mobile robot deployment. They are replete with relatively unstructured tasks with significant uncertainty, involve tasks with skills that require robots to work in collaboration with humans…
 

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

University of Michigan-Abhishek Mosalikanti, Pranove Bandi, Sang-Hwan Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1006
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With ever-rising automotive safety standards, automotive manufacturers have been pushing towards improving occupant safety and convenience by adding sophistication to vehicles using ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems). Recent developments in the industry have been towards adding additional display systems to work in collaboration with the aforementioned ADAS systems to educate the passengers on vehicle status and information. The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of ADAS warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic birds eye view for warnings. Sixteen normal drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. A full factorial between subject design was employed in the experiment. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and adjustability of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking…
 

Accuracy and sensitivity of yaw speed analysis to available data

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Bradley Heinrichs, Janice Lee, Cole Young
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0417
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Accident reconstructions rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so must bracket the true value with a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of the SUV test vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history. Simulations based on the complete tire marks improved the average error compared with the CCS equation. Adding the remaining input data to the simulations did not further…
 

Development of subject-specific elderly female finite element models for vehicle safety

Chongqing University-Yunlei Yin, Junming Li, Qingmiao Wang
State Key Lab of Veh NVH & Safety Technology/Chongqing Univ-Wenxiang Dong, Zhenfei Zhan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1224
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks. The multiple peak points were selected to expand landmarks set, so as to improve the morphing quality compared…
 

Seatbelt Entanglement: Field Analysis, Countermeasure Development, and Subject Evaluation of Devices Intended to Reduce Risk

Tool Inc.-Jason Sidman, Bill Liteplo
UMTRI-Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila Ebert, Laura Malik, Miriam A. Manary
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0619
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Since 2000, over 200 rear seat occupants have become entangled in the seatbelt when they inadvertently switched it from emergency locking mode (ELR) to automatic locking mode (ALR). While a method is needed to lock the seatbelt when installing child restraint systems (CRS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) commissioned tool, Inc. to develop prototype devices that could reduce the risk of seatbelt entanglement resulting from the lockability requirement. A field analysis of entanglement incidents was first conducted to inform countermeasure design. Prototype devices were developed and evaluated through testing with volunteer subjects in comparison to standard seatbelt systems by assessing how different designs would be used to install CRS, the quality of the resulting installations, how users would disentangle a trapped child surrogate, as well as to identify volunteer experience when using the belts themselves. Four prototype devices were evaluated in two phases of testing conducted at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. All four prototype devices had shorter disentanglement times than trials with the standard seatbelt, but there was not a…
 

Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

CAERI-Yaming Zhang
Tongji University-Bo Leng, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Dequan Zeng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0439
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety system such as ABS, TCS, ESP et al. Sensors which can measure velocity directly are still expensive and not widely assembled in production automobiles. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all wheel drive, especially in wheel slip conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation model is built based on a typical used Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips severely; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well, while estimation results can be improved by calibrating observation error covariance matrix and/ or system error covariance matrix. Therefore, the adjusting gain matrix-based Kalman filter…