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Comprehensive Study on Crashes with Pedestrians on Indian Roads

Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solutions Pvt Ltd-Girikumar Kumaresh
Robert Bosch GmbH-Moennich Joerg, Thomas Lich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0004
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrian crashes are a major safety concern worldwide and especially in India. About one in every ten traffic-related fatalities in the country is a pedestrian. In 2016 nearly 15 800 pedestrians are killed in India are mainly exposed to risk when crossing and walking on the road in urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to understand the pedestrian behavior on the road and to identify characteristics of pedestrian crashes in India. Overall it was aimed to derive countermeasures out from accident contributing factors to improve traffic safety in India. Bosch Accident Research access the accident database of the Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). The present analysis is based on 1779 in-depth accident investigated and reconstructed cases from RASSI. Overall 168 crashes involving 207 pedestrians were analyzed and simulated afterwards. Five different locations involving majorly rural, urban & semi urban areas covered. As a result, every second pedestrian accident occurred while walking and crossing the road straight, and nearly 12% of crashes occurred while the pedestrian was standing in road.…

A Robust Structure Analysis on Automotive Door Armrest

FCA Engineering India Pvt Ltd.-Aswin Venkatesan, Sathish Kumar Sampath Kumar, Chandrasekhar Uppaluru
FCA US LLC-Mark Gratowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0006
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
An automobile door is one vital commodity which has its role in vehicle's function, strength, safety, dynamics, storage and aesthetic parameters. The door system comprises of door upper, bolster, armrest, main panel, map-pocket, handle and speaker grille. Among them, armrest is an integral part, which provides function and takes care of some safety parameter for the customers. The basic function of an armrest is to provide ergonomic relief to occupant for resting his hand. Along with this, it also facilitates occupant safety during a side impact collision by absorbing the energy and not imparting the reactive force on occupant. Thus an armrest has evolved as a feature of passive safety. The armrest design should be stiff enough to withstand required vertical load condition with-in the acceptable deflection criteria. On the other hand, armrest has to absorb the dynamic force by deflecting proportionally to the side impact. In this study the various structure of armrest was analyzed to strike an ideal zone between functional and safety parameters. The scope is to improve the functional requirement, i.e.,…

Vibro-Acoustic Optimization of 3 Cylinder Diesel Engine Components for Lower Sound Radiation Using Finite Element Techniques

Tractors and Farm Equipment Ltd-Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran V, Nageshwara Rao P.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0189
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Generally three cylinder engines due to less reciprocating masses are said to be more fuel efficient. Nevertheless, NVH problems caused by inherent imbalance forces and couples remain as draw back. NVH refinement levels can be improved by optimal design of the crank train, control of cylinder to cylinder pressure variation, stiffening of the engine structure, material change, etc. The objective of this study is to reduce the radiated noise of diesel engine by 2-3 dB (A) in the frequency range up to 3 kHz. Simulation and test approach was demonstrated for reducing radiated engine noise. The NVH performance of the baseline engine has been evaluated using CAE simulation tools. Radiated noise from the critical components like oil sump, crank pulley and timing cover has been predicted and the critical modes having severe effect on radiated noise levels of the engine has been identified. A series of DOE were carried out and parameters like Stiffness, material change, ribbing patterns, Shape of the components was modified to shift natural frequencies of the components to reduce the sound…

Computational and Experimental Analysis of Head Injury Criteria (HIC) in Frontal Collision of Car with Pedestrian

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology-Dr. Dhananjay G Thombare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0016
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Road accident between pedestrian and motor vehicle causes severe injuries and even death of pedestrian. The accident statistics show that the possibility of injury to pedestrian is higher in case of collision with car on busy roads. In car and pedestrian collisions, the pedestrian’s head hits with car bonnet and suffer from multiple injuries such as skull fractures and brain injury. The role of car bonnet structural strength plays an important role in pedestrian head injury level. To provide enough structural strength the high bonnet thickness is provided with under bonnet stiffeners, however thick bonnet and stiffeners reduces deformation of the bonnet during collision and increases injury level to pedestrian. Hence optimum bonnet thickness, least number and geometry of stiffeners and enough structural strength is important for bonnet to reduce injury level. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of car bonnet thickness, number and arrangement of under bonnet stiffeners on head injury levels with the help of head injury criteria (HIC). Head Injury Criteria (HIC) is a measure of the likelihood…

CAE Based Head Form Impact Simulations for Development of Vehicle Interior

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Kedar Joshi, Vilas Jadhav
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Yuvraj Suryawanshi, Sachin Lambate
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0237
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The interior components of a passenger vehicle are designed to provide comfort and safety to its occupants. In the event of accident, vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them. Vehicle interiors consists of Instrument panel (IP), center console, seats and controls in front of seating position etc. Severity of the injuries depends on the energy dissipating characteristics, profiles, projections of different interior components. These are assessed by ECE R21 and IS12553 head form impact tests. To evaluate the Head form impact performance on Interior components, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations are extensively used during the vehicle development. In order to predict failure of plastic components and snap joints which might lead to expose sharp edges, it is critical to model plastic material and snap joint. Vehicle interiors are certified for head form impact requirements based on physical testing where dashboard samples from productions tools are used. At this stage of development, if any failure occurs then changes in interior design becomes very expensive and time consuming. To avoid this situation,…

Comparative Analysis of Large Data Transfer in Automotive Applications Using Ethernet Switched Networks

General Motors Technical Center India-Nayana Chaudhari, Kalyan Chakravarthy Ananthoju, Sinu Isac
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0022
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive radars and cameras form the backbone of self-driving cars, Active safety and Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADASs). Streaming sensor, camera and audio data between sensors and Electronic control units(ECUs) requires huge data exchange. Ethernet with its large bandwidth capability is typically used as physical medium to communicate large data in automotive in-vehicle networks. Large data generally deals with payload size greater than single Ethernet Maximum Transmission Unit(MTU) size i.e.1522 Bytes that shall be sent via the transport protocol of the underlying bus. The purpose of the paper is to compare four different methods for transferring large data for current automotive Ethernet requirements. The methods Udp/Ip Fragmentation, Application fragmentation, Tcp/Ip Fragmentation and IEEE1722 transport protocol are evaluated. Bench evaluation of these methods are performed using Vector/Elektrobit software. The optimal approach is evaluated based on network performance with End to End latency, Network throughput and Packet Loss metrics.

Physical and Virtual Testing Synergic Approach to ADAS Radar Performance Verification and Optimization

Ingegneria dei Sistemi S p A-Mauro Bandinelli, Antonio Guidoni, Mirko Bercigli, Giacomo DeMauro
Siemens Industry Software-Koen De Langhe, Steven Dom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0024
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Radars based ADAS solutions are growing at a substantial rate in the automotive market since they play a fundamental role in increasing passengers and pedestrian safety. To meet the stringent vehicle safety norms and to reduce time and design costs, more effective and efficient industrial approach have to be devised both in terms of simulation (working at 77 GHz poses several numerical challenges) and testing. Automotive radar are always installed behind a bumper/grid. The bumper/grip, to a certain extent, can be considered as a radome and, as in avionic application, the radar antenna performance have to be evaluated accounting for its effects: shape, electromagnetic properties of materials, thickness, reflection and transmission coefficient at typical incidence angles in standard operational conditions may degrade the radar performance (detection range, direction of arrival etc). Numerical modelling (i.e. virtual testing) allows the creation of digital twins, the analysis of many configurations, the exploration of the design space and the identification of trade off solutions to optimize performance, but the final verification (especially when considering the whole radar performance, both…

ISO 26262 Hazard and Risk Assessment for Hybrid Powertrain

Tata Motors Limited-Rajiv Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0107
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
ISO 26262 is an Automotive functional safety standard for Electrical and Electronic system. This paper details application of this standard for hybrid powertrain. The concept of functional safety has been analysed. First item definition for hybrid powertrain is detailed out. Item definition includes system description, its function, boundary, interfaces to external systems. Hybrid powertrain is used to provide electric traction to the vehicle and to charge the included battery. Battery provides power to electric motor. Major components of hybrid powertrain are Generator, Traction motor, High voltage battery, Inverters and other auxiliary units. The overall powertrain scheme is being discussed from functional safety perspective. Then methods for identifying hazardous situations that could result from malfunctioning behavior at the vehicle level is presented. Each function is analysed from hazard perspective and all hazards are identified. Identified Hazards are analysed for different vehicle operating conditions and ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) rating is identified for each hazard.

Procedure for Material Failure Characterisation Through GISSMO

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Pruthviraj B Pawar, Sujit Chalipat, Ganesh Gadekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0284
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle crashworthiness is an important aspect of Vehicle development. Vehicle structural performance in crash plays a critical role in controlling the occupant injuries. During a crash event, vehicle energy management governs the structural performance and passenger compartment integrity. However, these parameters are dependent on material properties such as yield/UTS strength, work hardening effects, strain rate dependency, material elongations and material fracture strains. Appropriate representation of these material properties in CAE environment is very critical for reliable prediction of vehicle structural performance during development phase. Among all material properties, material fracture strain is the complex one and requires detailed material characterization approach for failure definitions. Conventional approach is based on failure strain obtained through uniaxial tensile test as per ASTM E8 standard. This approach however limits ability to predict failure under dynamic loading conditions wherein material experiences variable state of stress (non-proportional loading) like combination of tensile, shear and compressive loading in considerably shorter period of time. This limitation of conventional failure prediction approach is effectively addressed through GISSMO, which inherently accommodates effect of variable state…

Design of a Door Intrusion Barrier to Improve the Side Impact Safety for Passenger Car Application

VIT University-Abinav Shankar Siva Balan, Ashok Bragadeshwaran, Gowutham Eswaramoorthy, Arun Pandiyan Rajendran, Vemuluri Ramesh Babu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0001
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The automobile industry is making huge strides to improve vehicle and occupant safety. A lot of safety improvements and modifications have been made in the past decade. But the side impact is still overlooked as not much has been improved for side safety despite most of the accidents and collisions happen to the side of a vehicle. Side intrusion barriers are the primary protection feature along with A, B and C pillars. Crashworthiness mainly depends on the position, cross-section and material of the intrusion barrier. In this context, the present work mainly focuses on finding the optimum position, choosing the correct cross-section and finding the right material for the intrusion barrier. The objective of this work is to minimize the damage to the side of the vehicle by increasing its crashworthiness thereby reducing passenger injuries. A model of a vehicle door has been designed in Solid Works and various cross sections of side intrusion barriers like circular, rectangular, H-section, I section, E and C section have been developed. The crash test has been conducted according…