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Aircraft Plenum Air Outlet Optimization Method

Embraer-Fernando Stancato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0021
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
It is possible to observe a growing interest by mobility industry toward a increased passenger comfort perception. This tendency is being characterized in the aviation sector by interior project that would guarantee the passenger comfort in entertainment, ergonomics, lightning, air quality, acoustics and thermal environment. Regarding this last three aspects, the air distribution through the plenum has a great impact on them. In this work it is presented a method to select the best outlet orifice configuration. The method was applied on seven different plenums. Acoustic evaluation was done using a rig experiment. Based on noise levels of each configuration, the dominant frequency range is identified. Objectives metrics, such as overall levels, speech interference level (SIL3) and loudness were applied. Subsequently, subjective analysis was conducted using the paired comparison method. Finally, an acoustic performance classification was established. Draft effect and air temperature distribution inside the cabin was done using CFD simulation. Besides that, a one-dimensional duct model was done for each configuration to evaluate plenum velocity and pressure distribution. Through these models, it was possible…
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Application of Extended Messinger Icing Models to Complex Airframe Geometries

Georgia Institute of Technology-Avani Gupta, Lakshmi Sankar
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Richard Kreeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0022
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion poses a major problem for civilian and military aircraft and rotorcraft, severely jeopardizing the safety and survivability of the vehicle. The development of analytical and empirical ice tools to understand the ice accretion process is crucial. Existing methodologies, such as the Messinger model employed by LEWICE, are able to predict ice shapes and growth on lifting surfaces such as wings and rotors relatively well. Extension of these methodologies to more complex configurations is needed. The methodology must be reasonably modular so that one can leverage future developments in computational fluid dynamics, structured and unstructured grid generation, and ice accretion models. Towards this goal, the following modular approach has been developed. 1. Do the unstructured grid based flow analysis. Save the grid and flow field in a standard format such as Plot3D or VGrid. 2. Compute the water particle transport using either the Lagrangian approach or an Eulerian approach. Where possible, public domain analyses, e.g. OpenFoam, are used in this step. 3. Compute the time rate at which water is deposited on the solid…
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Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

University of Pittsburgh-Ashmita Rajkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0020
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth. As a result of these issues, NASA has delayed its Mars mission to circa 2028. Another…
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High Altitude Platform System Airship for telecommunication and border monitoring design and physical model

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0044
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an accurate analysis of a high altitude platform with an unconventional ellipsoidal shape during the most critical operation with the support of a large CFD analysis. The airship is designed accordingly to the specifications which have been analysed in terms of the required CONOPS (Concepts of Operations). Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) associated with the proposed High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) technology and special operations and to analyze the operational scenarios which are relevant to HAPS technology. An innovative cruiser feeder system is defined and studied. The CONOPS includes communications relays, support of intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition monitor “mobile targets”, and reconnaissance, including long-range ISTAR missions performed by the feeder, combining satellite vision and HAPS vision for a forest fire, disasters, naval accidents, maritime and ground borders. The paper realizes a multidisciplinary analysis that allows creating the design of the HAPS, referring to both cruiser and feeder according to the in different operative scenarios. Inside the digital twin model simulations will be performed in multiple cases allowing generating the best possible configuration by mean…
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Adaptive Test Feedback LoopA Modelling Approach for Checking Side Effects During Test Executionfor Advised Explorative Testing

Bremer Inst. Für Produktion Und Logistik-Marco Franke, K. A. Hribernik
University of Bremen-K. D. Thoben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0017
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of testing is to evaluate the functionality, reliability, and operational safety of products. However, this objective makes testing a complex and expensive stage in the development process. This is particularly true for complex and large systems, such as trains or aircrafts, which require maximum operational safety. From the perspective of an aircraft manufacturer, the checks are carried out via test cases on the integration, system and application levels. Thus, they certify the products against the requirements using black box testing approach. In doing so, a test plan defines a sequence of test cases whereby it sets up the environment, stimulates the fault, and then observes the system under test for each case. Subsequently, the post processing of the test execution classifies the test plan in passed or failed. The ongoing digitization and interconnectedness between aircraft systems is leading to a high number of test cases and a multitude of reasons why a specific test-case fails. A corresponding error analysis and adaptation of the test plan is a complex and lengthy process, which…
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Acoustic Study on Motorcycle Helmets with Application of Novel Porous Material

AcouTech Lab, Dept of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,-Jüri Lavrentjev, Hans Rämmal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0531
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A critically high noise level inside protective helmet is a prevalent concern for motorcyclists. Especially at highway speeds where the noise level, regardless of helmet type can exceed 100 dB(A) and approaches threshold of discomfort, often resulting in temporary hearing loss. Despite of large share of persons exposed to such noise disturbance around the world, the in helmet noise levels have not significantly decreased over the last decades. Only few scientific publications can be found to systematically address this issue. Furthermore, in respect of driving safety even moderate noise levels are reported to impair reaction times and reduce attention of motorcyclists. At higher speeds the dominant helmet noise source is linked to aerodynamic turbulence around the helmet shell. The loudness and spectral contents mainly depend on the driving speed, windscreen configuration, riding position and helmet geometry. In this paper a series of on-road tests and laboratory experiments with three main types of helmets (“full face”, “flip up” and “open face” type) have been performed with the focus on in-helmet acoustics. Noise spectra at the location…
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Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag Control on Bluff Body using Synthetic Jets

Utsunomiya University-Naoto Kato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0538
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Since flow separation causes increase of the drag on bluff bodies, its control method has been studied for many years. Active control methods are currently focused as an alternative to passive ones because they impose a larger drag penalty under certain conditions. Although the effectiveness of a steady jet using suction, blowing or pulsed jets has been demonstrated, it is difficult to obtain an effect commensurate with weight increase because the mechanism is complicated.One method of solving this problem is a synthetic jet. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice induced by oscillation of a diaphragm inside a cavity. Small engine powered vehicles demand less drag, a compact package and light weight because the drivers expect fuel efficiency, load capacity and economy. Synthetic jets can supply them because they contribute drag reduction and require only simple components.In this study, the influence of synthetic jets on the drag of a simple bluff body representing a road vehicle is measured. Drag measurement was performed by varying synthetic jet parameters: jet…
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Turbocharger Performance Prediction: A Review of Map Modelling

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica - Universid-José Arthur G. S. Teixeira, Oscar R. Sandoval, Bryan Castro Caetano, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0120
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Supercharging has been increasingly more employed as an approach to improve the internal combustion engine (ICE) thermal efficiency. The turbocharger (TC) stands out as a well-established technology which recovers waste energy from exhaust gases to increase the ICE intake pressure and mass flow rate. Nevertheless, the increasingly stringent restrictions on greenhouse gases emission, concomitantly with performance improvement required from customers, impose a tighter pairing between TC and ICE and higher control of TC operational conditions. Matching a proper TC for a given ICE has a major importance for the global efficiency, having direct impact on specific consumption, emission levels and drivability. This process is typically performed using computational simulations via interpolations of TC tabular performance maps, which details the flow status for given shaft speed and mass flow rate. Although this method provides a reliable and accurate description of the TC performance within the mapped domain, the multiple interpolations and extrapolations required entails high computational costs. Furthermore, the extrapolations required to describe the flow outside the mapped domain are not able to predict well the…
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Mass Optimization of a Front Floor Reinforcement

Ford Motor Company-Gimaezio Gomes Carvalho, Diego Freitas de Araújo, Rodrigo Silva Rodrigues
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0149
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Optimization of heavy materials like steel, in order to create a lighter vehicle, it is a major goal among most automakers, since heavy vehicles simply cannot compete with a lightweight model's fuel economy. Thinking this way, this paper shows a case study where the Size Optimization technique is applied to a front floor reinforcement. The reinforcement is used by two different vehicles, a subcompact and a crossover Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), increasing the problem complexity. The Size Optimization technique is supported by Finite Element Method (FEM) tools. FEM in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is a numerical method for solving engineering problems, and its use can help to optimize prototype utilization and physical testing. As the component geometry was already defined, the Size Optimization becomes the most adequate technique to be used, because it defines ideal component parameters, such as material values, cross-section dimensions and thicknesses, without changing its shape [1]. The Size Optimization methodology is a procedure in which certain parameters (Design Variables) need to be determined to achieve targeted performance (Objective Function) under given…
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Head Support Concept to Mitigate Neck Injury for Children Installed Forward Facing in Vehicles

General Motors of Brazil-Rodrigo da Silva Ribeiro
Unicamp-Antonio Celso Fonseca De Arruda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0106
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The slender neck of a 3-year-old child can be serious injured or even lead to child’s death when loaded under frontal impact by the proportionately larger and heavier head. Accordingly with medical recommendations based on latest studies, a 3-year-old child is safer when installed in a rear-facing child seat, but this configuration is not feasible for some vehicles with limited rear space such as superminis, small MPVs and pick-ups when front seats are occupied. This study aims to explore the potential of neck tension (Fz) reduction in 3-year-old dummy installed forward-facing when subjected to three head static restraints (head strap, head support, cervical collar) as well as an overhead shield car seat in order to identify solutions for a device to avoid or mitigate neck injuries. To simulate frontal impacts, a 3-year-old dummy from Q series was installed on a reinforced vehicle body fixed on a sled test equipment where the United Nations R129 pulse was applied. Both head strap and head support were not able to reduce neck tension due to the high Q3…
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