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Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

Airbus-Kevin Forster
Cranfield Univ-Philip Webb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1901
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification. As a part of the methodology, several design proposals to accomplish this specification are created. In parallel, a reverse engineering case scenario is used to generate a DMU using a…

Improving and Evaluating Aircraft Maintenance On-Time Performance for Wide-Body A-Checks Delays

SORT Engineering GmbH-Adel A. Ghobbar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1909
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Martinair is based on Schiphol Oost and is part of the KLM Group since 2008. The KLM Group on its turn is part of the Air France – KLM Group. Martinair started as a charter company and was founded by Martin Schröder. Martinair is now a cargo operator with its own maintenance base at Hangar 32 on Schiphol Oost. It operates 7 McDonnell Douglas MD-11’s and 6 Boeing B747-400’s. The focus will be on the MD-11 tri-jet in this thesis. Due to the entry in the KLM Group in 2008, changes have been made for synergy reasons to the Martinair organisation. Martinair Maintenance and Engineering is now focussing on becoming a Regional Jet Center. The maintenance on the Embraer E-190 of KLM Cityhopper will be the main part of the work. Due to the new focus of the Martinair maintenance and engineering department, the maintenance capacity for a MD-11 A-check will no longer be available. It is therefore chosen to outsource the MD-11 A-check from Martinair maintenance and engineering to KLM engineering and maintenance. The…

Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior

Sardou Societe Anonyme-Max Sardou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1857
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior Fire is a dramatic issue in aircraft nowadays, especially with composite air crafts. An additional issue is the dangerous use of flammable Li-Ion batteries in a lot of appliances. we propose in order to avoid dramas to produce aircraft interiors, fire doors, cargo bay walls, as well than cargo container able to contain a fire inside them, with our ceramic composite called TOUGHCERAM ®. We have developed a low-cost, ceramic, damage tolerant, this ceramic is flexible between minus 100°C and plus 350°C. TOUGHCERAM ® poly-crystalize between 60°C and 110°C and can be reinforced with fibbers like carbon or basalt one. TOUGHCERAM ® survive 90 minutes to a propane 1900°C torches. TOUGHCERAM ® does not burn, nor smoke. In this paper we will explain how it is possible to develop a fully mineral ceramic offering such unique mechanical and fire properties.

Noise and Vibration Optimization Using TMR Analysis for CI Engine Fueled by Blends of Simarouba Methyl Ester

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1894
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Generally, vehicle extensively tested to withstand against mechanical shocks, noise, vibration etc. While, accordingly make the provision such as suspension, dampers, air bags etc. still the problem of noise/vibration day-by-day incrementally arise and become severe with the age of vehicles. Noise/vibration is a controllable pollutant that deserves the attention were all the scientific community work hard for controlling their harmful effects. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to reduce Noise/vibration on predominantly basis while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. Noise/vibration cause and adverse effect on C.I engine, engine component and ultimately vehicle, may reduce the life of the engine. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the…

Compensating the Effects of Ice Crystal Icing on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1862
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the engine internal elements. Due to icing, the engine components performance change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influence. Therefore, it is relevant to study the possibilities of reducing the icing effect with the help of a special engine control. The focus of this paper is to determine control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine addressing this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial turbofan with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of ice crystal icing on the engine components performance is conducted. To perform simulation of the engine performance under such impact, degraded components characteristics was introduced into physics-based turbofan model. Control algorithms for this model were developed applied to various regulated variables used in the setpoint controllers…

A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. Ice accretion may occur in the core compression system, leading to blockage of the core gas path, blade damage and/or flameout. Numerous engine powerloss events since 1990 have been attributed to this mechanism. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. A necessary component of a complete analytical icing model is a thermodynamic accretion model. Continuity and energy balances are performed using the local flow conditions and the mass fluxes of ice and water that are incident on a surface to predict the accretion growth rate. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for…
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Semi-Empirical Modelling of Erosion Phenomena for Ice Crystal Icing Numerical Simulation

ONERA-Virgile Charton, Pierre Trontin, Philippe Villedieu
SAFRAN Aircraft Engines-Gilles Aouizerate
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this work is to develop a semi-empirical model for erosion phenomena under ice crystal condition, which is one of the major phenomena for ice crystal accretion. Such a model would be able to calculate the erosion rate caused by impinging ice crystals on accreted ice layer.This model is based on Finnie [1] and Bitter [2] [3] solid/solid collision theory which assumes that metal erosion due to sand impingement is driven by two phenomena: cutting wear and deformation wear. These two phenomena are strongly dependent on the particle density, velocity and shape, as well as on the surface physical properties such as Young modulus, Poisson ratio, surface yield strength and hardness. Moreover, cutting wear is mostly driven by tangential velocity and is more effective for ductile eroded body, whereas deformation wear is driven by normal velocity and is more effective for brittle eroded body. Several researchers based their erosion modelling on these two phenomena such as Hutchings et al. [4] for deformation erosion, or Huang et al. [5] and Arabnejad et al. [6]…
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Material Properties of Granular Ice Layers Characterized Using a Rigid-Body-Penetration Method: Experiments and Modeling

Technical University of Darmstadt-Markus Schremb, Kenan Malicevic, Louis Reitter, Ilia Roisman, Cameron Tropea
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Accretion and shedding of ice layers is a serious problem for various engineering applications. In particular, ice layers growing due to ice crystal impingement on warm parts of an aircraft jet engine pose a severe hazard since they seriously affect safe operation of an aircraft. The material properties, and in the first place the strength of an ice layer, are crucial for the mechanisms leading to, and taking place during, both accretion and shedding of an ice layer. In the present study, the apparent yield strength of dry granular ice layers is examined employing a novel rigid-body-penetration approach. Dynamic projectile penetration into granular ice layers of varying porosity and ice grain size is experimentally investigated for different projectile impact velocities using a high-speed video system and post-processing of the captured video data. The obtained data for the total penetration depth of the projectile is used to calculate the apparent yield strength of the ice layer based on theoretical modeling of the projectile dynamics during penetration. Finally, the experimental method and theoretical modeling employed in the…
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Experimental Investigations of an Icing Protection System for UAVs

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Richard Hann, Kasper Borup, Artur Zolich, Håvard Vestad, Martin Steinert, Tor Johansen
UBIQ Aerospace-Kim Sorensen
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
UAV icing is a severe challenge that has only recently shifted into the focus of research. Today, there are no mature icing mitigation technologies for UAVs, except for the largest fixed-wing drones. We are working on the development of an electro-thermal icing protection technology called D•ICE for medium-sized fixed-wing UAVs. As part of the design process, an experimental test campaign at the Cranfield icing wind tunnel has been conducted. This paper describes the icing protection system and shares experimental results on its capability for icing detection and anti-icing. Icing detection is based on an algorithm evaluating temperature signals that are induced on the leading-edge of the wing. A baseline signal is generated during dry (icing cloud off) conditions and compared to a signal during wet (icing cloud on) conditions. Due to significant differences in the heat transfer regime, the system can differentiate between these two states. The experiments show that our system can reliably predict icing conditions based on this principle. Furthermore, the anti-icing capability of the system is proven for two icing cases. The…
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Microwave Technique for Liquid Water Detection in Icing Applications

University of Oxford-Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
University of Southern Queensland-John Leis, David Buttsworth, Ramiz Saeed, Khalid Saleh
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The partial melting of ingested ice crystals can lead to ice accretion in aircraft compressors, but accurately measuring the relatively small fraction of liquid water content in such flows is challenging. Probe-based methods for detecting liquid water content are not suitable for deployment within turbofan engines, and thus alternatives are sought. Recent research has described approaches based on passive microwave sensing. We present here an approach based on active microwave transmission and reflection, employing a vector network analyzer. Utilization of both transmission and reflection provides additional data over and above emission or transmission only, and permits a more controllable environment than passive sensing approaches. The paper specifically addresses the question of whether such an approach is viable within the context of representative icing wind tunnel and engine flow conditions. A quasi-thermal equilibrium approach is presented herein to estimate the melting ratio during microwave analysis of samples at 0 °C. Experimental results using microwaves in the 2.45GHz region are presented, and post-processing methods investigated. This is followed by an investigation of detection limits for ice accretion…
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