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Safety Analysis of an Airship that Loses Buoyant Gas from the Hull

  • Sheffield Hallam University - Michele Trancossi
  • Universidade Da Beira Interior - Jose Pascoa
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1954
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the physical phenomena that affect a high-altitude airship in the presence of lifting gas losses from the hull. General atmospheric thermodynamics and basic physical principles are adopted to describe the behavior of an airship with envelope failures that generate buoyant gas dispersion or depressurization phenomena. Overpressure that could grant to maintain some controllability during a large part of the descent is assessed by mean of the thermodynamic model of the envelope in the presence of gas losses. An optimization of the inflation parameters is provided and the conditions for avoiding dangerous crashes on the ground and the potential recovery of a damaged vehicle, people and its payload. In particular, the requirements for a slow depressurization is computed by the equilibrium with the atmosphere and then how can it be possible to sustain controlled navigation are determined. A key factor for security relates directly to the capability of preserving some airship balloon overpressure for the longest time possible. This condition can extend much the range of control. Complete forfeit conditions will be determined. In some cases, specific maneuvers could allow configuring the deflated balloon as a parachute, if coupled with adequate safety systems. A general guideline for safety systems has been defined and they show that airship if well created and well governed in emergency conditions will be much safer than any other aerial vehicle.

Feedback on Application of MBSE Approach to an Avionics Subsystem

  • COMAC - Jian Tang, Shaofan Zhu
  • Samares-Engineering - Raphael Faudou, Jean-Marie Gauthier
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1922
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides feedback on using a modelling approach to define an avionics subsystem in the frame of SAE ARP4754A aerospace recommended practices. Feedback concerns the practical use of models to support functional part of the following processes: “requirements capture”, “requirements validation”, and top-level part of “development of system architecture”. A Model-Based Systems Engineering approach has been proposed with a set of modelling tasks concerning views (diagrams, tables), patterns and transformations, and model checking rules. The goal of the approach is to structure functional needs and guide systems engineers in identification and definition of system functional interfaces and of system top level functions. This paper provides returns of experience on the application of that new approach on an industrial avionic case study known as the Onboard Maintenance System by a team mainly used to document centric approach until recently. After some presentation of the pilot case used as experiment, some results are given and there is discussion on several points: the lessons learned during and after application of the MBSE approach to identify use cases, to define black box scenarios and to build the top level functional architecture. Paper provides comments about the approach (e.g. use cases granularity, modelling stop criterion, communication between systems), before starting the design. Then it discusses advantages and drawbacks that were measured during this modelling approach with regards to traditional document centric approach. Paper also provides the challenges identified for wider adoption in the company and the remaining points of attention when extending approach on larger project.

Arc Fault Detection Methods in DC MEA Distribution Systems

  • University of Strathclyde - Jeffy Thomas, Rory Telford, Puran Rakhra, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1934
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The replacement of non-propulsive loads with electrical equivalents on more-electric aircraft (MEA) will require higher-capacity electrical power distribution systems, integrated with advanced power electronic conversion and protection technologies, arranged to form highly-resilient network architectures. Direct current (DC) distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators as it enables the paralleling of non-synchronised engine off-take generators and reduces the number of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads However, significant challenges in reliably detecting arc fault conditions within high-power DC systems still exist and need to be addressed to ensure high levels of safety and reliability. Arc faults present a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and even potentially fatal conditions. Arc faults are typically intermittent in nature and may arise due to the vibration of loose terminal connections, or as degraded wires contact metal structures. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly aggressive as there is no natural zero-crossing in the current profile, and so can remain exposed for prolonged periods of time if not rapidly detected and isolated. They are also particularly challenging to detect as the reduction in fault current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for detection. This paper will provide an overview of series arc faults in DC systems, presenting both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends and characteristics. It will also offer a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper provides a particular focus on electrical detection methods which utilise feature extraction techniques. These are further categorised in to time-domain, frequency domain and the time-frequency domain. The paper concludes with a discussion on the potential challenge of certifying non-deterministic arc fault detection methods for aircraft applications and discusses the merit and feasibility of achieving a purely deterministic arc fault detection system for future DC aircraft power systems.

Practical Application of MBSE in the Development of Future High Integrity Aircraft Electronic Systems

  • Frazer-Nash Consultancy, Ltd. - Steven David Angus Fletcher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1921
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Practical application of MBSE in the development of future high integrity aircraft electronic systems Traditionally, complex multi-disciplinary aircraft system designs rely on the use of documents, spreadsheets and requirements databases to manage the design. Although these tools are capable of storing large quantities of information, it becomes more difficult to understand the whole of the design and to perform change analysis as the design matures and complexity increases. The result can be a lack of visibility of the extent to which the system design intent is being met, and a corresponding increase in project risk. This is particular challenge for high integrity system design which necessitates end to end traceability between design requirements and final implementation execution. At the forefront of the alternatives is the application of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methods which are being proven as highly effective in dealing with the technical and commercial complexity of modern systems. When applied correctly, MBSE tools can be used to articulate a system design on many levels of detail, conveying it to many stakeholders, while also managing design complexity. However, while offering significant potential, MBSE can be complex in itself and designing systems using MBSE methods comes with many challenges. This paper will focus on the real world application of MBSE within the aerospace domain, drawing on relevant experience using these methods for the design of a missile actuation system, with its hardware and software components. The paper will first review relevant standards (e.g. SAE ARP 4754, DO-178, DO-254) and discuss where MBSE fits within these standards. The paper will then go on to describe the specific use cases where the MBSE tools have been applied and the roles they have fulfilled. An important aspect of MBSE implementation is the associated organisational challenges. The adoption of MBSE represents a different way of designing systems and hence is disruptive to existing processes. This can impact staff and skill requirements and the way project teams work together. The paper will discuss these challenges and potential approaches for how they may be mitigated. The paper will conclude by summarising the progress made to date in the application of MBSE to missile actuation system design and the benefits realised.

Road Simulation Techniques for Reproducing Vehicle Behavior at Motocross Running on a Track

  • Suzuki Motor Corp. - Ryota Shimizu
  • Suzuki Motor Corp - Hisayuki Sugita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0051
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
A Road Simulator was developed to aim reproducing vehicle behavior of actual running on motocross (MX) track in a laboratory. Vehicle behavior while running MX track influence from various inertial forces, such as Jump landing, acceleration at full throttle, reduced speed at full braking and so on, and also load input from a rider to handlebars and footpegs must be considered, these inertial force and load should be apply on vehicle at laboratory test. To reproduce various inertial forces such as falling inertia at jump landing, longitudinal inertia while acceleration or deceleration, and rider body action on vehicle, Active restraint systems must be added rather than traditional method of load simulator that controls wheel axles vertical and longitudinal directions with actuator. Number of hydraulic actuator was increased therefore all actuators must be controlled to eliminate interaction effect of other actuator load and action. Furthermore, introducing actuator control technology that separated Frequency Response Function (FRF) by each running event, eventually the reproduction of MX running on laboratory test was successful. As the result, 5% or less of RMS error value was accomplished by wheel axis load, acceleration and suspension displacement at the reproduction of MX running. Herewith, accumulated fatigue damage degree of each part of frame was also reproduced at high accuracy. From the above, we achieved reproduced MX running behavior on indoor laboratory test, namely we are able to produce stable durability test without getting influence of curse condition variation such as raining, difference by riders variations, etc. moreover the test was able to run consecutive day and night and the test period was reduced. In addition, various mechanisms occurring on vehicle was able to be understood in details during the approach to reproduce vehicle behavior and load in laboratory test.

The effect of lifting gas losses from the hull of an airship on a safe landing

  • Sheffield Hallam Univ. - Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1965
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the physical phenomena that affect a high-altitude airship in the presence of lifting gas losses from the hull. General atmospheric thermodynamics and basic physical principles are adopted to describe the behavior of an airship with envelope failures that generate buoyant gas dispersion or depressurization phenomena. Overpressure that could grant to maintain some controllability during a large part of the descent is assessed by mean of the thermodynamic model of the envelope in the presence of gas losses. An optimization of the inflation parameters is provided and the conditions for avoiding dangerous crashes on the ground and the potential recovery of a damaged vehicle, people and its payload. In particular, the requirements for a slow depressurization is computed by the equilibrium with the atmosphere and then how can it be possible to sustain controlled navigation are determined. A key factor for security relates directly to the capability of preserving some airship balloon overpressure for the longest time possible. This condition can extend much the range of control. Complete forfeit conditions will be determined to demonstrate that airship cannot be anymore controllable below 20% of the initial altitude at which the failure has started. In some cases, specific maneuvers could allow configuring the deflated balloon as a parachute, if coupled with adequate safety systems. This research about safety conditions will be also useful for designing safety systems. A general guideline for safety systems has been defined showing that airship if well created and well governed in emergency conditions will be much safer than any other aerial vehicle.

System Identification Method for Brake Particle Emission Measurements of Passenger Car Disc Brakes on a Dynamometer

  • Technische Universitat Darmstadt - Hartmut Niemann, Hermann Winner
  • IUTA Duisburg - Christof Asbach, Heinz Kaminski
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1884
To be published on 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
System identification method for brake particle emission measurements of passenger car disc brakes on a dynamometer Similar to particulate emissions from engine exhausts, which are already regulated by emission standards, passenger car disc brakes are a source of particulate matter. According to various estimations brake particle emissions contribute to all traffic related emissions with two-digit percentage share and reduction of brake dust emissions is subject of current research. For the purpose of reducing brake dust emissions by choosing low-emission operating points of the disc brake, the knowledge of the emission behavior depending on brake pressure, wheel speed, temperature and friction history is of interest. According to the current state of research, theoretical white box modeling of the emission behavior is complicated due to the complexity of tribological contact between pad and disc. Thus experimental black box modeling is supposed to describe emission behavior. In order to minimize the influence of disturbances and therefore to improve prediction accuracy of such empirical models, system identification methods based on periodical test signals, such as brake pressure sine, are used for this application. To adopt these test signals, which are established in transfer function measurements, to the application of brake particle measurements and to develop an experimental design, system theoretical quantities, such as cutoff frequency, signal to noise ratio and hysteresis, are determined in dynamometer tests. Therefor measurements of the system’s response to step and sine test signals are analyzed. System identification is executed and the applicability of periodical test signals to brake particle measurements is proved.

Effects of an On-Board Safety Device on the Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Light Duty Vehicle

  • University of Technology- Sydney - Cheuk Yin Ng, Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, John Zhou, Nic Surawski
  • THEi - Jackson Ho
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1821
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption are significantly affected by driving behavior. Many studies of eco-driving technology such as eco-driving training, driving simulators and on-board eco-driving devices have reported potential reductions in emissions and fuel consumption. Use of on-board safety devices is mainly for safety, but also affects vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. In this study, an on-board safety device was installed to alert the driver and provide several types of warning to the driver (e.g. headway monitoring warning, lane collision warning, speed limit warning, etc.) to improve driving behavior. A portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure vehicle exhaust concentrations, including hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The driving parameters including vehicle speed, acceleration and position were also recorded. A specific test route was designed for the experiment to investigate both urban and highway conditions. The driving parameters and emissions data were compared before and after the installation of the on-board safety device with the same driver. The Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) methodology was applied to evaluate the effects of the on-board safety device on driving behavior. The results indicated that the device had a positive effect on the driver’s driving behavior. The percentage of time spent on excessive speeding and strong acceleration decreased from 22.2% to 14.7%. As a result, an average reduction of 25% in fuel consumption was observed. In addition, HC, CO2 and NOx emissions showed a reduction of 57%, 25% and 9% respectively. However, CO emission was increased and the time spent on idling showed no change with the installation of the device.

Effect of Mesh Size in Numerical Simulation of Turbine Housing in Turbocharger

  • Honeywell Integrated Technology China - Henry Guo
  • North China Uniersity of Science & Tech. - Haiyang Long
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1715
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical method is popular in analyzing turbine housing in turbocharger with an early and rapid risk assessment. However, complex casting and extreme thermal loading from exhaust gas temperature and flow variation under engine duty cycle lead to big thermal stress and this makes material serviced in the plastic zone. Previous numerical simulations show that a mesh size is insensitive to the elastic finite element analysis (FEA), but might not be proper for elastic-plastic FEA, even that other boundary conditions keep same, which indicating simulation results are changeable with mesh size and a simple numerical mesh size convergence might not be enough to guarantee accurate numerical results as well. Therefore, several different mesh sizes are used in elastic-plastic analysis of turbine housing to investigate the influence on numerical results. Based on the numerical results and their comparison, we conclude that theoretical results exist under smaller finite element size but it is impractical to reach under elastic-plastics analysis in engineering application because industrial resource is not enough to support. The reasonable mesh size is recommended to consider both accuracy of simulation results and industrial resource. The fatigue life model and Goodman diagram should be calibrated as well based on this mesh size to evaluate turbine housing design risk.
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Safety Wire Holes, Hex, Fitting, Location Of, Design Standard

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1043H
  • Current
Published 2018-08-13 by SAE International in United States
Scope is unavailable.