This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Investigation on Contralateral Lower Extremity Injuries of Pedestrian and E-Bike Rider Based on C-NCAP
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Lower extremities are easily injured in traffic accidents. During pedestrian-vehicle crashes, pedestrian lower extremities are subjected to the influence of combined shear force and bending force, which could bring about ligament tear and bone fracture. According to 2018 China New Car Assessment Program (C-NCAP) pedestrian testing protocol, where the flexible pedestrian legform impactor (FLEX-PLI) is struck from the right lateral by vehicle, the injuries of the ipsilateral side leg are taken into account for assessing the performance of lower extremities. However, the contralateral leg injuries and deformation are neglected in the current testing protocol and the pedestrian walking gaits and the e-bike riding scenario have been little consideration. The purpose of this study is to investigate the injury characteristics of the contralateral lower extremities in pedestrian-vehicle and bicyclist-vehicle crashes. Impact simulations were conducted by the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) biomechanical dummy, which the testing vehicle struck the pedestrian of the standing and walking postures as well as the bicyclist at the speed of 40 km/h. The femur, fibula, tibia stress, the stretching ratio of ligaments, and the bending angle of the knee joints for the contralateral side legs were measured. Meanwhile, a comparison of the injuries and motions between the two legs was analyzed. The results show that the walking gait increased the injury risk of long bone fracture and ligation rupture, and the e-bike riding posture enlarged the injury risk of long bone fracture and reduced the ligation stretching ratio compared the standing case. Moreover, the stretching ratio of the contralateral LCL was larger than that of the ipsilateral MCL for all scenarios.
CitationChen, C., Fang, R., and wang, L., "Investigation on Contralateral Lower Extremity Injuries of Pedestrian and E-Bike Rider Based on C-NCAP," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1045, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1045.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Transportation authority of the ministry of public security . Annual report on road traffic accidents of the People's Republic of China (2009). Beijing:2010.
- Transportation authority of the ministry of public security . Annual report on road traffic accidents of the People's Republic of China (2010). Beijing:2011.
- Transportation authority of the ministry of public security . Annual report on road traffic accidents of the People's Republic of China (2011). Beijing:2012.
- Transportation authority of the ministry of public security . Annual report on road traffic accidents of the People's Republic of China (2012). Beijing:2013.
- Transportation authority of the ministry of public security . Annual report on road traffic accidents of the People's Republic of China (2013). Beijing:2014.
- Transportation authority of the ministry of public security . Annual report on road traffic accidents of the People's Republic of China (2014). Beijing:2015.
- Jikuang, Y. , “Mathematical Simulation of Knee Responses Associated with Leg Fracture in Car-Pedestrian Accidents,” International Journal of Crashworthiness 2(3):259-271, 1997.
- Funk, JR., Kerrigan, JR., Crandall, JR. , “Dynamic bending tolerance and elastic plastic material properties of the human femur”. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Proceedings Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Barrington, USA, Sep 13-15, 2004. 215-233.
- China automotive technology and research center . CNCAP management rule,2018(in Chinese).
- Tang, J., Zhou, Q., Nie, B. et al. , “Influence of pre-impact pedestrian posture on lower extremity kinematics in vehicle collisions,” SAE Int. J.Trans. Safety 4(2), 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1507.
- Chidester, A., Isenberg, R. , “Final report: The pedestrian crash data study. Society of Automotive Engineers”, 2001.
- Yamada, H. . In: Evans F.G. , editor. Strength of Biological Material. Baltimore. (Williams & Wilkens, 1970).
- Nyquist, G W. , “Injury Tolerance Charecteristics of the Adult Human Lower Extremities under Static and Dynamic Loading”. Proc of the Symposium on Biomechanics and Medical Aspects of Lower Limb Injuries. Warrendale, USA, 1986, 79-90.
- Van Dommelen, J.A.W., Ivarsson, B.J., Jolandan, M.M. et al. , “Characterization of the rate-dependent mechanical properties and failure of human knee ligaments,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0293 , 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0293.
- Kerrigan, J R., Bhalla, K S., Funk, J R., et al. “Experiments for establishing Pedestrian-impact lower limb injury criteria. Femur”,2003.
- Kajzer, J., Cavallero, C., Ghanouchi, S. et al. , “Response of the knee joint in lateral impact: Effect of shearing loads,” . In: Proceeding of International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI) Conference. Bron, France. (1990), 293-304.
- Kajzer, J., Schroeder, G., Ishikawa, H. et al. , “Shearing and bending effects at the knee at high speed lateral loading[C],” SAE Technical Paper 973326 , doi:10.4271/973326.
- Jikuang, Y. , “Overview of Research on Injury Biomechanics in Car-Pedestrian Collisions[J]”. Chinese Journal of Automotive Engineering,2011,1(2):81-93(in Chinese).
- Xiaoqing, J., Jikuang, Y., Bingyu, W., et al . “An Investigation of Biomechanical Mechanisms of Occupant Femur Injuries under Compression-Bending Load[J]”. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2014, 46(3): 465-474(in Chinese).
- Yong, H., Jikuang, Y., Fan, Li, et al. “Finite Element Analysis of Lower Extremity Fractures in Vehicle Pedestrian Collision[J]”. Journal of Jilin University (Engineering and Technology Edition), 2011,41(1):6-11(in Chinese).
- Fressmann, D. , “Vehicle Safety Using the THUMSTM Human Model. 11th German LS-Dyna Forum 2012”, Oct 9-10,2012.
- Chawla, A., Mukherjee, S., Mohan, D., et,al . “Validation of the Cervical Spine Model in THUMS”. Proceedings of the 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV).2005
- Fuminori, O., Kiyoshi, O., Yuko, N., et. al . “Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Body”. 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference,3-37. 2002
- Burstein, A.H., Reilly, D.T., and Martens, M. , “Aging of Bone Tissue: Mechanical Properties[J],” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 58(1):82-87, 1975.
- Bingyu, W. , Finite element analysis and research of human lower extremity injury biomechanics based on real pedestrian traffic accidents[D]. Doctoral Thesis of Hunan University, 2016(in Chinese).
- Yongcheng, L. , Study on the Effect of Age on Pedestrian Lower Extremity FE Modeling and Injury[D]. Master thesis of Hunan University, 2016 (in Chinese).
- Mo, F.H., Arnoux, P.J., Cesari, D. et al. , “The Failure Modelling of Knee Ligaments in the Finite Element Model,” International Journal of Crashworthiness 17(6):630-636, 2012.
- Matsui, Y. , “Effects of Vehicle Bumper Height and Impact Velocity on Type of Lower Extremity Injury in Vehicle-Pedestrian Accidents,” Accident Analysis and Prevention 37:633-640, 2005.