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Research on the Subjective Rating Prediction Method for the Ride Comfort with Deep Learning

Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd-Ryusuke Hirao
Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.-Nobuyuki Ichimaru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1566
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Suspension is an important chassis part which is vital to ride comfort. However, it is difficult to achieve our targeted comfortability level in a short time. Therefore, improving efficiency of damper development is our primary challenge. We have launched a project which aims to reduce the workload on developing dampers by introducing analytical approaches to the improvement of ride comfort. To be more specific, we have been putting effort into developing subjective rating prediction, vehicle dynamics prediction, the damping force prediction. This paper describes the subjective rating prediction method which output a subjective rating corresponding to the physical value of the vehicle dynamics with Deep Learning. As a result of verifying with the unlearning data, DNN(Deep Neural Network) prediction method could almost predict the subjective rating of the expert driver.
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Direction Specific Analysis of Psychoacoustics Parameters Inside Car Cockpits: a Novel Tool for NVH and Sound Quality

University of Parma-Daniel Pinardi, Costante Belicchi, Angelo Farina, Marco Binelli
University of Parma / ASK Industries SpA-Lorenzo Ebri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1547
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Psychoacoustics parameters are widely employed in automotive field for objective evaluation of Sound Quality of vehicle cabins and their components. The standard approach relies on binaural recordings from which numerical values and curves are calculated and head-locked binaural listening playback can be performed. Recently, the Virtual Reality technology started to diffuse also in automotive field, bringing new possibilities for enhanced and immersive listening sessions. In this paper, we combine both solutions: the VR approach is adopted to calculate the principal psychoacoustics parameters. The acquisition system consists in a massive spherical microphone array featuring a camera for recording panoramic visual background. The acoustical information is encoded into High Order Ambisonics spatial format, that can be rendered on stereoscopic visors and Spatial PCM Sampling format that can be used to produce 360° colour maps. In this way, we are able to plot the psychoacoustics parameters adding their directivity information over the panoramic background, turning the array into a novel 360° diagnostic tool. At the same time, the playback can be performed inside Ambisonics listening rooms or binaurally…

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

  • Journal
  • V129-1EJ
To be published on 2020-05-29 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Aero-thermal analysis of ventilated passage in a brake disc

Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute-Akshay Mhaske, Sampattakumar Gunadal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0011
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, the numerical investigation of a brake disc is done for studying its aero-thermal behaviour and finding alternatives that perform better. In a disc brake, the heat generated due to friction has to be dissipated by one or the other modes of heat transfer. Out of the three modes of heat transfer, convection is to be maximized as others may cause deterioration of neighbouring parts. The disc is of ventilated type and hence the turbulence and mass flow rate through this ventilated area is to be optimized so as to improve the convective heat transfer coefficient. An in-depth study of various design changes previously done for improving heat transfer coefficient in ventilated disc is done and these changes are incorporated in the existing design. Various design combinations using different design tweaks for improving heat transfer coefficient are made and simulated in component testing like conditions, which are validated against previously done actual experiments. Total of 12 different design iterations were simulated and the one with the highest heat transfer coefficient was analysed in…
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Simulation of the performance of solar driven thermoelectric based rotary desiccant wheel HVAC system

Vellore Inst. of Technology, Vellore-Selvaraji Muthu, Sekarapandian N
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0041
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive applications, the main functionality of the HVAC system includes, heating, ventilation, and cooling or air-conditioning of the vehicle interior to achieve the desired indoor thermal comfort. In the current scenario conventional vapor compression based HVAC system are widely used for this application. The typical refrigerants used to operate this equipment include HFCs and HFOs which are susceptible to cause environmental hazard. The aim of this article is to assess the performance of a hypothetical solar driven thermoelectric based rotary desiccant wheel HVAC system (D-HVAC) to be used for automotive applications. The D-HVAC system uses desiccant wheel to remove the latent heat, energy wheel to remove the sensible heat, evaporating coolers to achieve further cooling, the regeneration of the desiccant wheel by hot air and water as the refrigerant. In the case of solar driven–DHVAC system, the solar energy is utilized for regeneration of desiccant wheel in place of hot air. However, the intensity of incident solar energy varies throughout the day. To compensate for this energy fluctuation an an additional thermoelectric system…
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Unsettled Topics in the Application of Satellite Navigation to Air Traffic Management

VIGIL Inc.-James L. Farrell
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020010
To be published on 2020-04-29 by SAE International in United States
Contemporary air traffic management (ATM) challenges are both (1) acute and (2) growing at rates far outpacing established ways for absorbing technological innovation. Lack of timely response will guarantee failure to meet demands. Immediately that creates a necessity to identify means of coping and judging new technologies based on possible speed of adoption. Paralleling the challenges are developments in capability, both recent and decades old. Some steps (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) backup) are well known and, in fact, should have progressed further long ago. Others (e.g., sharing raw measurements instead of position fixes) are equally well known and, if followed by further flight tests initiated (and successful) years ago, would have produced a wealth of in-flight experience by now if development had continued. Other possibilities (e.g., automated pilot override) are much less common and are considered largely experimental. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report is aimed at focusing industry attention on unsettled ATM issues and activities that appear most likely to offer solutions, starting with the near term and continuing on toward increasing versatility and…
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Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies. Then, the regenerative brake control problem during ABS events is formulated with a unified control system architecture where the regenerative braking torque is coordinated with the friction braking torque of ABS system. An integrated closed loop based wheel slip control including both regenerative braking control loop and friction braking control loop during ABS event, referred to as…
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Energy Efficient Maneuvering of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Southwest Research Institute-Sankar Rengarajan, Scott Hotz, Jayant Sarlashkar, Stanislav Gankov, Piyush Bhagdikar, Michael C. Gross, Charles Hirsch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0583
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Onboard sensing and external connectivity using Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) technologies will allow a vehicle to "know" its future operating conditions with some degree of certainty, greatly narrowing prior information gaps. The increased development of such Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) systems, currently used mostly for safety and driver convenience, presents new opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of individual vehicles. The NEXTCAR program is one such initiative by the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E) to developed advanced vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies that leverage such connected information streams. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in collaboration with Toyota and University of Michigan is currently working on improving energy consumption of a Toyota Prius Prime 2017 by 20%. This paper provides an overview of the various algorithms that have been developed to achieve the energy consumption target. A breakdown of how individual algorithms contribute to the overall target is presented. The team built a specialized test-bed called CAV dynamometer that integrates a traffic simulator and a hub dynamometer for testing the…
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Development and Application of a Collision Avoidance Capability Metric

AAA Northern California Nevada & Utah-Paul Wells, Atul Acharya
Dynamic Research Inc.-Jordan Silberling, Joseph Kelly, John Lenkeit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1207
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development and application of a newly developed metric for evaluating and quantifying the capability of a vehicle/controller (e.g., Automated Vehicle or human driver) to avoid collisions in nearly any potential scenario, including those involving multiple potential collision partners and roadside objects. At its core, this Collision Avoidance Capability (CAC) metric assesses the vehicle’s ability to avoid potential collisions at any point in time. It can also be evaluated at discrete points, or over time intervals. In addition, the CAC methodology potentially provides a real-time indication of courses of action that could be taken to avoid collisions. The CAC calculation evaluates all possible courses of action within a vehicle’s performance limitations, including combinations of braking, accelerating and steering. Graphically, it uses the concept of a “friction ellipse”, which is commonly used in tire modeling and vehicle dynamics as a way of considering the interaction of braking and turning forces generated at the tire contact patches. When this concept is applied to the whole vehicle, and the actual or estimated maximum lateral and…
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A Dynamic Trajectory Planning for Automatic Vehicles Based on Improved Discrete Optimization Method

Chongqing University-Pengyun Zeng, Zheng Ling
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0120
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic trajectory planning problem for automatic vehicles in complex traffic scenarios is investigated in this paper. A hierarchical motion planning framework is developed to complete the complex planning task. An improved dangerous potential field in the curvilinear coordinate system is constructed to describe the collision risk of automatic vehicles accurately instead of the discrete Gaussian convolution algorithm. At the same time, the driving comfort is also considered in order to generate an optimal, smooth, collision-free and feasible path in dynamics. The optimal path can be mapped into the Cartesian coordinate system simply and conveniently. Furthermore, a velocity profile considering practical vehicle dynamics is also presented to improve the safety and the comfort in driving. The effectiveness of the proposed dynamic trajectory planning is verified by numerical simulation for several typical traffic scenarios.