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Next Steps for the IIHS Side Crashworthiness Evaluation Program

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)-Raul A. Arbelaez, Becky C. Mueller, Matthew L. Brumbelow, Eric R. Teoh
Published 2019-07-08 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - IIHS has been conducting side impact crash tests since 2003. To understand how the side crashworthiness program can be enhanced, an ongoing research effort is focused on understanding the correlation between IIHS ratings and driver death rate. In addition, the performance of good-rated late-model vehicles has been assessed in higher severity side crash tests. The purpose of this short communication is to summarize the ongoing work and potential next steps toward developing a new crash test procedure or updating ratings criteria to further advance side crashworthiness.
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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2018
Published 2019-04-30 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Effect of restraints on chest deflection • Thoracic response in dynamic front loading • Side impact assessments and comparisons • Front airbag deployment rates and implications • Reanalysis of experimental brain strain data • Modeling pedestrian impacts • Short communications o New data on the biomechanics of injury and human tolerance, new methods and tools to study the biomechanics of injury, new developments in occupant protection systems, and new concepts on the biomechanics of injury based on experimental and analytical studies.
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Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin Oblique Vertical Testing

US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineerin-Hollie A. Pietsch, David R. Weyland
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - The Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) was developed to assess injury in Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFTE) and laboratory development tests of vehicles and vehicle technologies subjected to underbody blast (UBB) loading. While UBB events impart primarily vertical loading, the occupant location in the vehicle relative to the blast can result in some inherent non-vertical, or off-axis loading. In this study, the WIAMan Technology Demonstrator (TD) was subjected to 18 tests with a 350g, 5-ms time duration drop tower pulse using an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) energy attenuating seat in four conditions: purely vertical, 15° forward tilt, 15° rearward tilt, and 15° lateral tilt to simulate the partly off-axis loading of an UBB event. The WIAMan TD showed no signs of damage upon inspection. Time history data indicates the magnitude, curve shape, and timing of the response data were sensitive to the off-axis loading in the lower extremity, pelvis, and spine.
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Human Shoulder Response to Lateral Impact in Intermediate Loading Conditions Between High-Velocity, Short-Duration and Low-Velocity, Long-Duration

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Potier, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies. The aim of the current study is to provide additional insight at the intermediate loading conditions which are not found in the literature.Eight pure lateral shoulder impact tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) using an 8.1 kg rigid impactor at velocities ranging from 3.3 m/s to 8.8 m/s with the duration ranging from 25 ms to 35 ms. The PMHS were instrumented with accelerometers…
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Validation of a Finite Element 50th Percentile THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device in Multiple Sled Test Configurations

KBRwyle-Jacob B. Putnam, Jeffrey T. Somers
Wake Forest School of Medicine, Virginia Tech - Wake Forest-Kyle P. McNamara, Derek A. Jones, James P. Gaewsky, Ashley A. Weaver, Joel D. Stitzel
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Computational models of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) can be used in crash simulations to quantify the injury risks to occupants in both a cost-effective and time-sensitive manner. The purpose of this study was to validate the performance of a 50th percentile THOR finite element (FE) model against a physical THOR ATD in 11 unique loading scenarios. Physical tests used for validation were performed on a Horizontal Impact Accelerator (HIA) where the peak sled acceleration ranged from 8-20 G and the time to peak acceleration ranged from 40-110 ms. The directions of sled acceleration relative to the THOR model consisted of -Gx (frontal impact), +GY (left-sided lateral impact), and +GZ (downward vertical impact) orientations. Simulation responses were compared to physical tests using the CORrelation and Analysis (CORA) method. Using a weighted method, the average response and standard error by direction was +Gy (0.83±0.03), -Gx (0.80±0.01), and +Gz (0.76±0.03). Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrated the FE model’s kinetics and kinematics were sufficiently validated against its counterpart physical model in the tested loading directions.
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Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment

Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD)-Ray Valentine, Kathryn Loftis
WIAMan Case Review Team-Patricia Frounfelker, Karen Pizzolato-Heine
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. The events selected were evaluated by Department of the Army personnel to confirm they were representative of the loading environment expected for the WIAMan. A military case review was conducted for all AIS 2+ fractures with supporting radiology. In Warfighters whose injuries were reviewed, 79% had a foot, ankle or leg AIS 2+ fracture. Distal tibia, distal fibula, and calcaneus fractures were the most prevalent. The most common injury mechanisms were bending with probable vehicle contact (leg) and compression (foot). The most severe injuries sustained by Warfighters were to the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thoracic spine. These injuries were attributed…
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The Effects of Inboard Shoulder Belt and Lap Belt Loadings on Chest Deflection

Autoliv Japan-Yutaka Nakajima, Yoshihiko Tanaka, Ryota Ishigaki
Nagoya University-Koji Mizuno, Ryoichi Yoshida
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Chest injuries occur frequently in frontal collisions. During impact, tension in the lap belt is transferred to the inboard shoulder belt, which compresses the lower ribs of the occupant. In this research, inboard shoulder belt and lap belt geometries and forces were investigated to reduce chest deflection. First, the inboard shoulder belt geometry was changed by the lap/shoulder belt (L/S) junction for the rear seat occupant in sled tests using Hybrid III finite element simulation, sled tests and THOR simulation. As the L/S junction was closer to the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine), chest deflection of the Hybrid III was smaller. The L/S junction around the ilium has the potential to reduce chest deflection without significant increase of head excursion. For THOR, although the chest deflection reduction effect due to closer L/S junction to the ASIS was observed, chest deflection was still substantially large since the lap belt overrode the ASIS.Second, measures to hook the ASIS of the THOR by the lap belt were examined. Sled tests at 30 and 50 km/h were conducted with…
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Sources of Variability in Structural Bending Response of Pediatric and Adult Human Ribs in Dynamic Frontal Impacts

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Vehicle Rese-Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
Yun-Seok Kang Injury Biomechanics Research Center, The Ohio-Amanda M. Agnew, Michelle M. Murach, Victoria M. Dominguez, Akshara Sreedhar, Elina Misicka, Angela Harden, John H. Bolte
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Despite safety advances, thoracic injuries in motor vehicle crashes remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality, and rib fractures are the most prevalent of thoracic injuries. The objective of this study was to explore sources of variation in rib structural properties in order to identify sources of differential risk of rib fracture between vehicle occupants. A hierarchical model was employed to quantify the effects of demographic differences and rib geometry on structural properties including stiffness, force, displacement, and energy at failure and yield. Three-hundred forty-seven mid-level ribs from 182 individual anatomical donors were dynamically (~2 m/s) tested to failure in a simplified bending scenario mimicking a frontal thoracic impact. Individuals ranged in age from 4 - 108 years (mean 53 ± 23 years) and included 59 females and 123 males of diverse body sizes. Age, sex, body size, aBMD, whole rib geometry and cross-sectional geometry were explored as predictors of rib structural properties. Measures of cross-sectional rib size (Tt.Ar), bone quantity (Ct.Ar), and bone distribution (Z) generally explained more variation than any other predictors,…
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Development of Multiple Crash Events to Understand Occupant Behavior and Injury Based on Real-World Accidents

Hyundai-Motor Company-Seok Ho Hong, Sung Soo Kim, Hyung Wook Park, Sung Hun Chang, Jang Mook Lim
MGA Research Corporation-Brian William Storey, Jordan Robert Haynes, Robert Michael Schnorenberg
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - Approximately a quarter of automobile accidents in the United States involve multiple impacts, but no standard test methodologies exist for the evaluation of these types of events. In this study, four categories were used for the selection of multiple crash scenarios, resulting in ten representatives of multiple scenarios. NASS-CDS was analyzed to determine the types and percentages of multiple crash accidents. Simulation was conducted with variable such as initial velocity of each vehicle, and items such as overlap and angle between vehicles. And it was used determine the final test conditions. The review of the test results, indicated different vehicle dynamics, vehicle damage and occupant kinematics compared with NCAP test modes. This data can be helpful to understand how the severe accidents are happening and how the occupants move and are injured inside the vehicle in which accidents are occurring in the field.
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High-Speed Biplane X-Ray Head Impact Experiments in the Göttingen Minipig

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia-Elizabeth McNeil, Amy Hermundstad, Pamela VandeVord, Warren Hardy
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
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