Your Selections

STAPP
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

new

PMHS and WorldSID Kinematic and Injury Response in Far-Side Events in a Vehicle-Based Test Environment

Autoliv-Bengt Pipkorn, Benjamin K. Shurtz
Honda R&D Americas-Craig Markusic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0004
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Far-side kinematics and injury are influenced by the occupant environment. The goal of the present study was to evaluate in-vehicle human far-side kinematics, kinetics and injury and to assess the ability of the WorldSID to represent them. A series of tests with five Post-Mortem Human Subjects and the WorldSID were conducted in a vehicle-based sled test environment. The surrogates were subjected to a far-side pulse of 16.5 g in a 75-degree impact direction. The PMHS were instrumented with 6 degree-of-freedom sensors to the head, spine and pelvis, a chestband, strain gauge rosettes, a 3D tracking array mounted to the head and multiple single 3D tracking markers on the rest of the body. The WorldSID lateral head excursion was consistent with the PMHS. However, forward head excursion did not follow a PMHS-like trajectory after the point of maximum lateral excursion. All but one PMHS retained the shoulder belt on the shoulder during the entire test. However, the WorldSID consistently slipped out of the shoulder belt. The PMHS sustained an average of five rib fractures for which…
new

A Shoulder Injury Criterion for the EuroSID-2re Applicable in a Large Loading Condition Spectrum of the Military Domain

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0006
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) is an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD) from the automotive domain designed for lateral impact. Since the 2000’s, it has also been used by NATO armies to assess the risk of injury to armored vehicles occupants submitted to an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attack. The resulting loading conditions from an explosion can vary a lot in term of impact velocity and duration. They range from high velocity impacts (~28 m/s), characterized by a short duration (~10 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion, to low velocity impacts (~4 m/s), ch aracterized by a long duration (~50 ms) similar to the automotive domain. The goal of the study is to develop a shoulder injury criterion for the EuroSID-2re that is relevant over the whole loading conditions spectrum of the military domain.For that purpose, thirty-three laboratory ES-2re tests are conducted to replicate four PMHS shoulder impactor test series from the literature. Each test series corresponds to a different loading condition in term of impact velocity and duration: [28 m/s, 3 ms],…
new

Development of a Subhuman Primate Brain Finite Element Model to Investigate Brain Injury Thresholds Induced by Head Rotation

Prasad Engineering, LLC, Plymouth, MI, USA-Priya Prasad
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA-Tushar Arora, Liying Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0003
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
An anatomically detailed rhesus monkey brain FE model was developed to simulate in vivo responses of the brain of sub-human primates subjected to rotational accelerations resulting in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The material properties used in the monkey model are those in the GHBMC 50th percentile male head model (Global Human Body Model Consortium). The angular loading simulations consisted of coronal, oblique and sagittal plane rotations with the center of rotation in neck to duplicate experimental conditions. Maximum principal strain (MPS) and Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) were analyzed for various white matter structures such as the cerebrum subcortical white matter, corpus callosum and brainstem. The MPS in coronal rotation were 45% to 54% higher in the brainstem, 8% to 48% higher in the corpus callosum, 13% to 22% higher in the white matter when compared to those in oblique and sagittal rotations, suggesting that more severe DAI was expected from coronal and oblique rotations as compared to that from sagittal rotation. The level 1+ DAI was associated with 1.3 to 1.42 MPS and 50%…
new

Factors Affecting Child Injury Risk in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute-Marco Benedetti, Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam A. Manary, Carol A. C. Flannagan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0008
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Current recommendations for restraining child occupants are based on biomechanical testing and data from national and international field studies primarily conducted prior to 2011. We hypothesized that analysis to identify factors associated with pediatric injury in motor-vehicle crashes using a national database of more recent police-reported crashes in the United States involving children under age 13 where type of child restraint system (CRS) is recorded would support previous recommendations. Weighted data were extracted from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS-GES) for crash years 2010 to 2015. Injury outcomes were grouped as CO (possible and no injury) or KAB (killed, incapacitating injury, non-incapacitating injury). Restraint was characterized as optimal, suboptimal, or unrestrained based on current best practice recommendations. Analysis used survey methods to identify factors associated with injury. Factors with significant effect on pediatric injury risk include restraint type, child age, driver injury, driver alcohol use, seating position, and crash direction. Compared to children using optimal restraint, unrestrained children have 4.9 (13-year-old) to 5.6 (< 1-year-old) times higher odds of injury, while suboptimally…
new

Assessment of Several THOR Thoracic Injury Criteria based on a New Post Mortem Human Subject Test Series and Recommendations

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Renault-Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0012
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Several studies, available in the literature, were conducted to establish the most relevant criterion for predicting the thoracic injury risk on the THOR dummy. The criteria, such as the maximum deflection or a combination of parameters including the difference between the chest right and left deflections, were all developed based on given samples of Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). However, they were not validated against independent data and they are not always consistent with the observations from field data analysis. For this reason, 8 additional PMHS and matching THOR tests were carried out to assess the ability of the criteria to predict risks.Accident investigations showed that a reduction of the belt loads reduces the risk of rib fractures. Two configurations with different levels of force limitation were therefore chosen. A configuration representing an average European vehicle was chosen as a reference. It consists of a 3-point belt with a 3.5 kN and then 2 kN digressive limiter, combined with a 54-liter airbag. For better reproducibility and durability, the tests were performed with a pre-inflated bag…
new

Kinematic and Biomechanical Response of Post-Mortem Human Subjects Under Various Pre-Impact Postures to High-Rate Vertical Loading Conditions

Emory University, Atlanta, GA-Jonathan D Rupp
The John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laur-Constantine K Demetropoulos, Kyle A Ott, Christopher J Dooley, Nathanael P Kuo, Leah M Strohsnitter, Joseph R Andrist, Mary E Luongo, David G Drewry III, Andrew C Merkle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0010
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Limited data exist on the injury tolerance and biomechanical response of humans to high-rate, under-body blast (UBB) loading conditions that are commonly seen in current military operations, and there are no data examining the influence of occupant posture on response. Additionally, no anthropomorphic test device (ATD) currently exists that can properly assess the response of humans to high-rate UBB loading. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the response of post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in various seated postures to high-rate, vertical loading representative of those conditions seen in theater. In total, six PMHS tests were conducted using loading pulses applied directly to the pelvis and feet of the PMHS: three in an acute posture (foot, knee, and pelvis angles of 75°, 75°, and 36°, respectively), and three in an obtuse posture (15° reclined torso, and foot, knee, and pelvis angles of 105°, 105°, and 49.5°, respectively). Tests were conducted with a seat velocity pulse that peaked at ~4 m/s with a 30-40 ms time to peak velocity (TTP) and a floor velocity that…
new

A Sensor Suite for Toeboard Three-Dimensional Deformation Measurement During Crash

Honda R&amp;D Co., Ltd-Azusa Nakata, Shinsuke Shibata
University of Virginia-Tomonari Furukawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0014
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
This paper presents the development of a sensor suite that is used to measure the toeboard threedimensional (3D) dynamic deformation during a crash test, along with the methodology to use the sensor suite for toeboard measurement. The sensor suite consists of three high-speed cameras, which are firmly connected through a rigid metal frame. Two cameras, facing directly towards the toeboard, measure the shape of the toeboard through stereovision. The third camera, facing the ground, is equipped with a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer and localizes the sensor suite globally for removing the vibration of the sensor suite. The sensor suite was mounted onto the car through car seat mounting bolt holes, and a hole was made on the floor to let the downward camera see the ground. A pipeline using the data collected by the sensor suite is also introduced in this paper. A 56 km/h frontal barrier crash test was conducted to validate the capability of the sensor suite and a sled test was conducted to test the measuring accuracy of the purposed…
new

Machine Learning Based Model for Predicting Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

Bowhead (Systems &amp; Technology)-Vikas Hasija
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)-Erik G. Takhounts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0016
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
The objective of this study is to develop a machine learning based predictive model from the available crash test data and use it for predicting injury metrics. In this study, a model was developed for predicting the head injury criterion, HIC15, using pre-test features (vehicle, test, occupant and restraint related). This problem was solved as a classification task, in which HIC15 with a threshold of 700 was divided into three classes i.e. low, medium and high. Crash test data was collected from the NHTSA database and was split into training and test datasets. Predictive models were developed from the training dataset using cross-validation while the test dataset was only used at the final step to evaluate the chosen predictive model. A logistic regression based predictive model was chosen as it demonstrated minimal overfitting and gave the highest F1 score (0.81) on the validation dataset. This chosen model gave a F1 score of 0.82 on the test (new/unseen) dataset.
new

Novel use of a Halo Orthosis on Pediatric Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in Frontal Sled Test

Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Nationwide-Eric A. Sribnick
Injury Biomechanics Research Center, The Ohio State Universi-Julie A. Mansfield, John H. Bolte IV
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0018
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Children recovering from cervical spine injuries may need a halo orthosis, which rarely fits into traditional child restraint systems (CRS) during motor vehicle travel. The objectives are to affix a halo orthosis to a 3-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and to explore the effectiveness of alternative safety restraints for these occupants. The head of the ATD was modified to allow proper insertion of halo pins. The ATD was restrained in either a backless booster or a RideSafer Travel Vest (RSTV) with and without the halo orthosis. The shoulder belt routing over the halo bars caused axial rotation of the occupant during frontal impacts, which increased lateral and torsional neck loads compared to tests without the halo. The halo decreased frontal neck shear and bending compared to tests without the halo. Loose fit between the halo vest and the torso of the ATD likely contributed to a concentration of loads in the cervical spine.
new

The Effect of An Acoustic Startling Warning On Take-Over Reaction Time And Trunk Kinematics for Drivers in Autonomous Driving Scenarios

Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children’s Hospit-Valentina Graci, Madeline Griffith, Jalaj Maheshwari, Rahul Akkem, Meta Austin, Thomas Seacrist, Kristy B. Arbogast
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0022
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
The Acoustic Startling Pre-stimulus (ASPS, i.e. a loud sound preceding a physical perturbation) was previously found to accelerate action execution in simple flexion exercises. Therefore in this study we examined if ASPS can accelerate take-over reaction times in restrained teen and adult drivers who were asked to reach for the steering wheel while experiencing sled lateral perturbations simulating a vehicle swerve. Results showed that adult drivers lift their hands toward the steering wheel faster with the ASPS versus without (161 ± 23 ms vs 216 ± 27 ms, p<0.003). However this effect was not found in teens or in trials where the drivers were engaged in a secondary task. Adults also showed reduced lateral trunk displacement out of the seat belt with the ASPS. The ASPS could represent a novel warning that reduces take over time and out-of-position movements in critical autonomous driving scenarios.