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1984 SAE International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition
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A Fuel Additive Concentrate for Remowal of Injector Deposits in Light-Duty Diesels

Chevron Research Company, Richmond, California-R. E. Olsen, M. C. Ingham, G. M. Parsons
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
In light-duty diesels, carbonaceous deposits can restrict the fuel-injection nozzles, resulting in increased noise, smoke, and roughness. An ashless dispersant fuel additive concentrate based on polyether amine chemistry was developed to remove these deposits during normal service.Tests in a wide variety of light-duty vehicles show that one tankful of additized fuel provided, on average, more than 50% nozzle cleanup. Significant reductions of cold engine noise and smoke emissions after use of the additive were demonstrated.The development program included studies of the effects of deposits on injector flow characteristics and engine performance. Selected examples illustrate that a definition of fuel “quality” as it relates to nozzle deposits has yet to be resolved.
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Hydraulic Systems Performance of Army Engine Oils

U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory, Southwest Research Institute-H. W. Marbach, S. J. Lestz
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A technical evaluation of qualified military specification lubricants was started by the U.S. Army Belvoir Research and Development Center and was performed at the U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory (AFLRL) located at Southwest Research Institute. This work was conducted to determine if such lubricants can be used as hydraulic fluids in Army Commercial Construction Equipment (CCE) and Selected Material Handling Equipment (SMHE).Sixteen military specification lubricants were extensively evaluated using twelve selected tests required by equipment manufacturers and one test developed by AFLRL in conjunction with John Deere. From the data developed, lubricants meeting Army specifications passed 88 percent of all the tests. It appears that the Army engine oils are good potential candidates for use as hydraulic and power transmission lubricants within the Army CCE/SMHE systems. Areas of concern include copper corrosion, wet brake/clutch frictional performance, and final drive gear wear.
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Development of Engine Oils Meeting North American, European and Japanese Performance Standards

The Lubrizol Corporation-D. M. Smith, J. M. Sutherland
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The development of engine oil specifications in North America, Europe and Japan has resulted in a proliferation of performance tests of increasing complexity and cost. At the same time, the transportation industry is becoming more international with vehicle populations of mixed national origin the rule, rather than the exception. In this context, regional specification writing bodies are making efforts to rationalize their own specifications and to enter into dialogue with each other. Central to any attempt at rationalization, regionally or internationally, is the availability of high-quality reference oils. Data on two formulations (a passenger car motor oil and a heavy-duty engine oil) which have met major requirements of North American, European and Japanese engine builders are presented.
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Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Single-Cylinder, Divided-Chamber Diesel Engine

Engine Research Dept., General Motors Research Laboratories-A. C. Alkidas
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The potential sources of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a single-cylinder, divided-chamber diesel engine were investigated in this study. To evaluate the relative importance of these sources, the variations of HC emissions with engine speed, air-fuel ratio, combustion timing, intake-air temperature, coolant temperature and oil temperature were examined. Included in the diagnostics of this investigation were: ignition-delay measurements, combustion-chamber surface temperature measurements and heat-release modeling. Lubricating oil was found to contribute significantly to HC emissions. In addition, the results suggested that bulk quenching of flame and non-flame reactions is a primary source of HC emissions. On the other hand, lean mixing during the ignition delay period and wall interactions appear to be secondary sources.
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The Prediction of Auto Ignition in a Spark-Ignited Engine

University of Wisconsin —Madison, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering-Philip M. Dimpelfeld, David E. Foster
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A constant volume combustion simulation has been used to compute the ignition delays of pure fuels and binary fuel mixtures in air. Minima in the ignition delays were predicted by a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism for binary fuel mixtures with methane. A model has been developed to predict the occurrence of autoignition in a spark ignited engine. Experimental pressure data from a CFR engine were used in the model to simulate the temperature-pressure history of the end gas and to determine the time when autoignition occurred. Comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms were used to predict the reactions in the end gas. Methanol, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane and n-butane were used as fuels. The initial temperatures in the model were adjusted to give agreement between predicted and observed autoignition. Engine data for methane-ethane mixtures indicated a problem with the kinetic mechanism.
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The Effect of Diesel Soot on Reactivity of Oil Additives and Valve Train Materials

Fiat Auto S.p.A-S. Corso, R. Adamo
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Diesel soot contaminants may promote valve train wear and scuffing, in passenger car diesel engines, by interfering with the reactivity of oil additives on metal surface.This is the result of field test and experimental work in a “TNO” tribometer on valve train materials, at various level of reactivity to Zn DTP.It was found that compatibility between cam and tappet materials depends not only on proper mechanical properties, but on their chemical composition and reactivity to oil additives, provided favorable environmental conditions.Particularly, high concentration of alloy elements (Ni, Cr) in low carbon steel may result in passivation layers, which inhibit both reactivity to phosphating and Zn DTP.Besides, the presence of diesel soot contaminants may further reduce metal reactivity to Zn DTP, either through the formation of competitive chemisorption layers with the detergent additives and/or coordination products and micelles with the dispersants and the antiwear additive.As a result of diesel soot interference, apparently, less antiwear film is formed on the metal surface and severe metal-to-metal contacts and adhesion arise, leading to early engine failure.
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The Knock Syndrome — Its Cures and Its Victims

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA-A. K. Oppenheim
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The problem of knock is traced back to the earliest scientific paper on combustion in premixed gases written by Mallard and Le Chatelier. The pioneering contributions of Ricardo, Kettering and Semenov are then put in proper perspective. Upon the recognition of the fact that this phenomenon has been, and still is, imposing the major technological constraint upon the automotive and oil industries, its various cures are reviewed. Essential features of combustion instability leading to its onset are then exposed, and the methodology is outlined for a rational attack upon the problem it poses.
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Regenration Process of Ceramic Foam Diesel-Particulate Traps

Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc.-Takeshi Kogiso
Toyota Motor Corp.-Kenichirou Takama, Kiyoshi Kobashi, Kiyohiko Oishi, Tokuta Inoue
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Periodic regeneration of the diesel particulate trap is essential to maintain the collection efficiency and exhaust gas hack pressure at acceptable levels. The objectives of this study are to describe the phenomenology of ceramic foam filter regeneration process and to present its mathematical model. Further simulation study is carried out to estimate the effects of various factors including fuel additive on the ignition and the filter bed temperature and to investigate conditions of excessive temperature which could result in filter destruction.The model is based on the assumption that the regeneration process is composed of two steps. The first step is the additional heat supply from the external energy source, and the second step is the spontaneous combustion propagation. The results from the analytical model agreed very well with the experimental results. Additional energy is required above normal engine operating conditions to initiate the incineration under lower exhaust gas temperature. Regeneration must be carried out within a narrow range of particulate loading to avoid the melting of the filter material. The effects of fuel additives have…
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Increasing the Responsiveness of No. 2-D Diesel Fuels to Flow Improvers by Blending with Low Wax Diluents

Fuels and Lubricants Department, General Motors Research Laboratories-S. R. Reddy
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Low temperature operation of diesel vehicles can be improved either by diluting the fuel with low-wax diluents or by treating the fuel with flow improvers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the combined use of flow improvers and diluents. Laboratory experiments were conducted using three low-wax diluents - a No. 1-D diesel fuel, a tar sands-derived fuel, and an unleaded gasoline - in various No. 2-D diesel fuels. All three diluents increased the responsiveness of the No. 2-D fuels to flow improver treatment, and the combined use of diluents and flow improvers synergistically reduced the filter plugging temperature. For example, these reductions ranged from 6 to 13°C for fuels containing 25% No. 1-D fuel and a flow improver, whereas the use of flow improver alone was ineffective in most of the fuels, and dilution alone caused reductions of only 3 to 5°C. Vehicle tests confirmed the synergistic effect of dilution and flow improver use.
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Three-Dimensional Flow Field in Four-Stroke Model Engines

Imperial College of Science and Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Fluids Section, London, England-C. Arcoumanis, A. F. Bicen, C. Vafidis, J. H. Whitelaw
Published 1984-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Ensemble-averaged and in-cycle axial and swirl velocities have been measured by laser Doppler anemometry in the three-dimensional flow field of a four-stroke model engine motored at 200 rpm with a compression ratio of 6.7 and various cylinder head and piston geometries. The inlet configurations comprised an axisymmetric port with a shrouded valve and an off-centre port with two valve and swirl generating vane geometries. The piston configurations comprised flat, cylindrical and re-entrant axisymmetric piston-bowls. The results indicate that with the off-centre port a complex vortical flow pattern is generated during induction, which later either collapses in the absence of induction swirl or is transformed into a single rotating vortex in the transverse plane when swirl is present. The axisymmetric port with the shrouded valve gives rise to a double vortex structure and higher turbulence levels at TDC of compression compared to the off-centre port. The in-cycle swirl velocities indicate that the swirl centre oscillates during the compression stroke in phase, on the average, with the piston motion with associated turbulent fluctuations of smaller magnitude than…
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