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1978 Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition
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High Strength Steels In Production Automobiles

Materials Engineering Chrysler Corporation-S. Dinda, D. K. Kelley, A. S. Kasper
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
More than 77 kg (170 lbs.) of high strength steels (70 parts) are used in the new Chrysler Omni and Horizon models. Nearly 50 percent of these high strength metals is dent resistant steel. Why these high strength steels are used and what components are in production, are reported in this paper. The production experiences with these materials for major components are discussed. The development and application of dent resistant steel for hood outer panels are also reported. The advantages of using these high strength materials are also discussed in this report.
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Testimony Concerning Human Fault Concepts

Fowler, Fuehrer and Associates, Inc. Orlando, FL-Frank D. Fowler
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The design engineer must be aware of two sources of human error. First are those which he may commit during the design process. Second are those that the potential user may commit when he attempts to use the product. When called as a witness to defend his design decisions in a product liability suit, the design engineer must be able to show that both concepts of human fault were considered as part of the design process. Additionally, it is essential that he be familiar with methods of preventing these human errors.
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Characterization of the Lean Misfire Limit

Dept. of Mechanical Engrg., Univ. of California Berkeley, CA-G. H. Shiomoto, R. F. Sawyer, B. D. Kelly
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Cycle by cycle variations in combustion are investigated as a means to characterize the lean misfire limit of a spark ignited, internal combustion engine. The cyclic variations are represented as parameters of the cylinder pressure versus crankangle curves. The specific parameters investigated are peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, crankangle of maximum pressure, crankangle of maximum rate of rise, indicated mean effective pressure, and area of the pressure curve. The variations are statistically analyzed on a digital computer. Exhaust gas analysis is performed to determine the correlation between the misfire limit and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and formaldehyde.Imep and area variations are found to be the most promising as an indicator of the lean misfire limit. As the equivalence ratio decreases from stoichiometric, the variations stay constant, until a sharp linear increase is achieved. Correlation with hydrocarbon emissions shows a strong combustion change occurs at this point of rapid variation increase. This point is adopted as the definition of the lean misfire limit.
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VMRS - the American Trucking Associations Maintenance Reporting Standards

Burlington Fleet Services-J. E. Paquette
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Maintenance records, often talked about, but seldom deemed creditable when management determines that some type of action is required. Comparing maintenance performance and costs has been a frustrating as well as a misleading exercise. In 1969, the American Trucking Associations, Inc. undertook the development of the first uniform vehicle maintenance reporting system by and for the industry. The basic research included for hire carriers, private carriers, government fleets, as well as manufacturers and suppliers. The end product was released in 1970 under the title Vehicle Maintenance Reporting Standards. This was ultimately shortened to VMRS.Since 1970, VMRS has been adopted and installed in a large number of fleets in the United States, Canada and Europe. The results have been significant. Industrywide data base reports have become available where, for the first time, true and meaningful statistics are being generated using VMRS. Several manufacturers have adopted the VMRS coding, thus we now have available a truly universal system developed for and adopted by all facets of the transportation industry.
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Effect of Cold Weather on Motor Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Economy

Mobile Sources Div., Fisheries and Environment Canada (Ottawa/Canada)-Nicolas Ostrouchov
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The effect of soaking temperature on exhaust emissions has been studied using a variety of automobiles representing three different emission control levels and testing them at ambients of 20°C down to -30°C(60°F to -22°F).It was found that emissions of the three gaseous pollutants demonstrated a mild power relationship with ambient (soaking) temperatures. All regulated pollutants and fuel consumption were higher at -30°C than at 20°C: hydrocarbons (HC) - 3.5 to 9.2 times; carbon monoxide (CO) - 2.4 to 6.4 times; oxides of nitrogen (NOx) - only 1.1 to 1.4 times; and fuel consumption 1.2 to 1.8 times higher. Analysis of the data has indicated that HC and CO emissions from the cold start phase of the Federal test were the most sensitive to soaking temperature. With NOx emissions the soaking temperature sensitivity was fairly constant throughout the three phases of the Federal test.The data also indicate that the temperature sensitivity of both fuel economy and, to a lesser extent, emissions is a function of inertia weight.
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EPA's Rulemaking Program and Strategy for Reducing Surface Transportation Noise

Surface Transportation Branch, Environmental Protection Agency-William E. Roper
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
It is the intent of this paper to report on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Noise Regulatory Program for surface transportation vehicles. The motorcycle and railroad noise programs will be highlighted and nine other Surface Transportation Regulatory Programs currently underway will be covered.
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How VMRS Helps the Manufacturers

International Harvester Co.-J. C. Arndt, R. A. Burton, S. L. Schwalm
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The Vehicle Maintenance Reporting Standards of the American Trucking Associations can be used by manufacturers to improve heavy-duty vehicles. After verifying the accuracy and significance of the data the manufacturing, engineering, technical service and marketing departments can all use the information to improve vehicles and provide better service to the user.
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Advanced Concepts in Automobile Weight Reduction Using High Performance Plastics

E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co., Inc.-Richard F. Waughtal
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Reduction in vehicle weight is a key goal for today's automobile design. This is being accomplished, in part, by replacement of metal components with lighter weight, multifunctional engineering plastics and composites.Additional weight reduction potential exists, however, through the use of high performance plastic parts from aramid and polyimide resins. The weight reducing value attributable to parts from these materials emanates from their high performance properties, and not necessarily their light weight. Superior properties allow the aramid and polyimide parts to be used in applications involving bearing loads, moving contact speeds and temperatures found too severe for other plastics. The principal benefit of their use is the designer's ability to downsize companion metal parts and to more readily incorporate lightweight metals such as aluminum.This paper describes application and design concept areas where high performance plastic parts can contribute to achievement of improved functionality at a cost-benefit level consistent with automotive requirements. Physical properties important to engineering design, such as, strength, creep resistance, thermal expansion, wear life (in both lubricated and dry systems) and frictional characteristics are…
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Alternator Energized Electric Towing Dynamometer

General Motors Proving Ground Mesa, AZ-Trevor O. Jones, Howard D. Stewart, Donald E. Wilson
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The national goals of more fuel efficient automobiles are being achieved in part by smaller and lighter vehicles resulting in demands for smaller and compatible instrumentation. Previously designed towing dynamometers for regular-sized vehicles were unable to provide adequately low drawbar levels for small cars like the Chevette. The dynamometer trailer provides a controllable retarding force on the passenger car to simulate hill climbing. This paper describes electrical and mechanical characteristics and operation of a dynamometer specifically designed for contemporary vehicles.An improved method is outlined for supplying controlled electrical power to eddy-current retarders used on the dynamometer. The improved system uses a 24 volt production alternator to supply controlled direct current to the eddy-current retarder. The current delivered to the eddy-current retarder is controlled by adjusting the alternator's field current. Rotational energy to turn the alternator is derived from forward motion of the dynamometer trailer. The improved system eliminates the need for the previously used gasoline-powered generator and silicon-controlled rectifier system. The improved method greatly reduces initial hardware cost, operating and maintenance cost, and noise level.
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Emissions Performance of Lean Thermal Reactors-Effects of Volume, Configuration, and Heat Loss

General Motors Research Lab.-Ronald J. Herrin
Published 1978-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Effects of gas mean residence time and residence time distribution on the emissions performance of automotive thermal reactors were evaluated using a research reactor which provided independent control of volume, internal configuration, and heat loss. Steady-state tests of this reactor on a lean-mixture, multicylinder engine revealed that mean residence time significantly influences the performance of well-insulated reactors. However, high heat loss diminishes the residence time effect in uninsulated reactors. Adjusting reactor configuration to improve residence time distribution increases performance irrespective of heat loss. Overall, insulated “2-pass” reactors are nearly optimum.
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