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Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2019
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Optimization of EGR Mixer to Minimize Thermal Hot Spot on Plastic Duct & Soot Deposition on Throttle Valve Using CFD Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Ayush Agrawal, Kumar Raju, Sataya Brata Ghadei
Mahindra Research Valley-Tanmay Santra, Nagarajan Gopinathan, Joy Varghese
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In recent time, with inception of BS VI emission regulation with more focus on fuel economy and emission, many engine parts which were conventionally made from metal are getting replaced with plastic components for reducing weight to attain better fuel economy. EGR is commonly used technique to reduce emissions in diesel engine along with after treatment devices. EGR reduces peak combustion temperature inside the combustion chamber thereby reducing NOx. EGR is bypassed from the exhaust manifold, cooled down in EGR cooler and mixed with intake air at upstream of the intake manifold. Throttle valve is used for controlling the charged air flow to cylinders for different vehicle operating conditions. With compact engine layout EGR mixer are often located near to throttle valve thereby increasing the possibility of soot deposition on throttle valve. Once these soot & hydrocarbons cool down they can transform into sticky amorphous carbon, which obstruct the functioning of throttle valve thereby leads to not meeting the required emission levels. At the same time, hot EGR impinging on plastic intake ducts can melt…
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Mathematical Modelling and Analysis of Vane Type Variable Displacement Oil Pump

UCAL Fuel Systems, Ltd.-Sureshkumar Jayanthamani, Ramalingam Sivanantham, Aravind Muthu Suthan
Vellore Insititute of Technology-Mohamed Ibrahim, Hariharan Subhramanean
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In today’s scenario, both in gasoline and diesel engines, it is important to reduce power consumed by the auxiliary devices causing parasitic loss. Oil pump is one such device, used for lubrication purpose, which consumes higher power developed by the engine causing parasitic loss. Conventionally gerotor construction pumps are predominantly used in majority of engines, owing to its simpler construction, lower NVH and cost. However, this type being a positive displacement pump, consumes higher power with increase in speed. Hence, variable displacement oil pumps are gaining importance as the oil flow rate can be varied over the entire engine operating range. In this work, basic design elements of variable displacement oil pump are identified followed by building of mathematical model to calculate the critical design parameters. The basic mathematical model built can calculate oil flow rate, leakage losses and power consumption at different speed and load conditions. Proto samples were also built and tested at steady state conditions at different speed and load conditions. Results obtained shows that the mathematical model can predict the performance…
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Development of a Parametric Model for Burn Rate Estimation in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG-Prakash Kamat, Arne Schneemann, Sanjay Patel, Werner Kasper, Andreas Flohr, Gurusathya Rajasekar
The Automotive Research Association of India-Mayur Patne
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In internal combustion engines, rate of fuel burning known as burn rate is a simplified representation of complex in-cylinder combustion process. It is considered as a prime input especially in 1D simulation tool for all important thermodynamic studies. A novel parametric model for prediction of burn rate in heavy duty Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine has been introduced in the present work. A wide range of experimental data with more focus on higher load points with different in-cylinder combustion characteristics is considered and burn rates have been generated using measured pressure trace. Generated burn rates have been studied over different phases of combustion. These burn rate shapes have been analyzed to understand the effect of fuel injection system, air management subsystem parameters along with in-cylinder conditions on combustion. Different mathematical modelling approaches for burn rate approximation like Wiebe function have been studied. Burn rates generated using experimental data have been reproduced using a newly developed mathematical modelling approach. Part of diffusion and late combustion phase has been captured by a unique correlation. This mathematical model…
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Implementation of Active & Passive Safety for Heavy Article Tilter and Positioner (HATP)

DRDO-Jatinkumar Janshali, Gurram Ramamohana Rao
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Mobile heavy article tilter and positioner (HATP) is special purpose vehicle designed to level, articulate and positioning of very heavy load within the accuracy of arc minutes and in a stipulated time in fully auto mode. HATP system uses sophisticated electronic controller system to carry out required task in auto mode. This electronic controller system comprises of various types of electronic hardware, software, sensors and actuators. As this system is dealing with heavy load, any failure in any of subsystem of HATP can result into catastrophe. Therefore active and passive safety measure at various levels must be incorporated into system which firstly prevents the failure and reduce the effect of failure. The safety system for HATP system has been divided in three major levels: 1. Access level safety 2. Operational safety 3. Preventive safety. All three levels of safety is incorporated at appropriate subsystem based on Risk Priority Number (RPN) and failure mode effect analysis. The subsystems of HATP have been divided in hyper critical, critical and sub-critical systems. The integrated scheme of active and…
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1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

Tata Motors Ltd-Sunil Kumar, Shoaib Iqbal
Tata Technologies Ltd-Arunmohan Pattathil
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle-handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation.The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target. First part of the work deals with 1D tire model parameter synthesis tool development utilized for calculation of tire parameters such as lateral force and aligning torque for different loading condition and varying slip angle. These parameters are the function of slip angle and inclination (camber) angle and slip ratio. Second part of the work focuses on vehicle handling assessment using…
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Styling and Packaging Approach to Meet Pedestrian Upper Leg Requirements as per Euro NCAP Protocol

Tata Motors Limited-Dnyaneshwar Mhaskar, Ashish Kumar Mahapatre, Milind Bhagat
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In most of the countries all over the world, thousands of pedestrians and vulnerable road users are struck by motor vehicles and getting killed or get severe injuries. Accident research data shows that pedestrians are a significant proportion of all road user casualties [1]. In pedestrian impact with vehicle front end, several organ forms impact directly to front end of the vehicles and get severe injuries in head, lower leg and pelvis region. Pelvis region of pedestrian get severe injuries due to hit by Bonnet Leading Edge. Impact force is major injury driving parameter in case of pelvis region. In earlier Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v7.1.1 [2], upper leg impact energy calculation was based on BLE (Bonnet Leading Edge) height and bumper lead. Vehicle front end styling was not playing any role in deciding upper leg impact energy. Upper leg impact performance was purely dependent on BLE height and package space available. Whereas in current Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v8.4 [3], upper leg impact energy calculation is estimated based on vehicle front end styling and…
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Real-Time Back Torque Measurement Using Contactless Telemetry on Electric Starter System of a Two-Wheeler Fired Engine

Schaeffler India, Ltd.-Kedar Bargaje, Manish Takle
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In a two-wheeler, electric starter system generally One way clutch is coupled with the magneto rotor. This allows the transfer of torque from the electric motor to the magneto rotor and finally to the crankshaft to start the internal combustion engine. After the electric starter, has started the internal combustion engine, one way clutch automatically goes into idling mode. In two-wheeler, internal combustion engine is susceptible to misfire due to variations in combustion behavior. This sometimes leads to knocking and unpredictably high back torque. This acts on the starter system and leads to failure of One way clutch, starter gears or the starter motor. It is not feasible to predict the back torque realistically. It is also very challenging to make real time measurement of back torque on the fired engine. In this paper, we are attempting to explain a unique testing methodology which was adopted to overcome this challenge and successfully measure the back torque accurately. The instrumented test vehicle was mounted on a chassis dynamometer. Back torque was simulated using specific test cycle.…
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Methodology to Determine Optimum Suspension Hard Points at an Early Design Stage for Achieving Steering Returnability in Any Vehicle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Manjul Jyoti, Udhayakumar S, Karthik Senthi
Mahindra Research Valley-Sakharam Desai
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Steering returnability while driving is one of the most important parameter which affects the drive pleasure and handling of a vehicle. Steering returnability refers to the automatic returning response of the steering wheel after taking a full turn while vehicle is being steered during driving. Evaluating steering response characteristics of any vehicle in a virtual environment at early stage of a product development saves significant development time and cost. Through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for selection of suspension hard points which influences steering returnability characteristics of a vehicle at an early product design stage. Conventionally, suspension kinematic parameters such as Caster angle, Steering axis inclination (SAI), etc. are iterated during vehicle design stage to achieve desired Steering returnability. However, at times vehicle level trials indicate that increasing caster angle or SAI does not guarantee a desirable increase in steering returnability. In this new methodology a set of iterative trials are done to vary hard points (X, Y, Z co-ordinates) of Lower ball joint of an independent front suspension…
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A Study of Significance in Lower Link Draft Sensing and Comparative Study over Top Link

Tractors and Farm Equipment, Ltd.-Partha Sarathi Singha, Arunkumar Selvaraj, Pawan Gundariya, Velmurugan M A, Mulam Sreenivasulu Rao
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
One of the major impacts on tractor performance during cultivation is variation in soil draft. The control strategy shall be developed to maintain the soil draft which mainly depends on the sensitivity and accuracy of draft measurement. This paper presents the theoretical calculation of force on the lower link points of three point hitch system in tractor and selecting an optimum point for the fitment of draft sensor. The force distribution on the lower and top link was studied by developing the suitable mechanical frame with hydraulic actuation to simulate the soil draft. The control strategy was developed to maintain the draft force with tractor hydraulic system and field testing was performed on 58 hp (43 kW) tractor to compare the draft control operation with lower link draft sensing methodology and conventional top link based draft sensing. The Land was cultivated by driving the tractor on all combination of soil type transition (Hard, Medium and Soft soil) and effectiveness of draft control was analyzed. This simulation test results confirmed that the ratio of lower link…
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Assessment of Water Injection in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine for NOx Reduction Potential

Ashok Leyland Technical Center-Ashok Raaj
Ashok Leyland, Ltd.-Sandeep S, Brijesh Kinkhabwala, Krishnan Sadagopan, Sunil Pandey
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine pollutants include Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) which are traditionally known for their trade-off characteristics. It’s been a challenge to reduce both pollutants at the source simultaneously, except by efforts through low temperature combustion concepts. NOx formation is dependent on the combustion temperature and thus the in-cylinder reduction of NOx formation remains of utmost importance. In this regard, water injection into the intake of a heavy-duty diesel engine to reduce peak combustion temperature and thereby reducing NOx is found to be a promising technology.Current work involves the use of 1-D thermodynamic simulation using AVL BOOST for modeling the engine performance with water injection. Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) model was used which can model the emissions. Initially, the model validation without the water injector was carried out with experimental data. Further to this, the water injector module was integrated to inject decided quantity of water from the experiment to get optimum emission reduction. 3D CFD analysis using CONVERGE was carried out in-order to assess the water spray characteristics. A selection of…
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