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Vibro-Acoustic CAE from an Industrial Application Perspective

LMS International, Belgium-H. Van der Auweraer, M. Tournour, K. Wyckaert, K. De Langhe
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Vibro-acoustic simulation methods such as FEM and BEM have made an enormous progress for modelling and describing the acoustic and vibro-acoustic behaviour of mechanical systems. In order to make these techniques truly become part of the “virtual” industrial design process however, the specific challenges related to industrial-sized problems must be overcome. The paper reviews the critical issues to building and solving large-scale problems and discusses practical aspects such as the correct load definition and simulation performance requirements and improvements. Some breakthrough solutions like Acoustic Transfer Vectors and parallel computing are discussed. Specific attention is devoted to the potential of hybrid methods combining virtual models with experimental data. The discussed are illustrated by means of powertrain noise and vibration case studies.
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Materials Engineering and New Designs for Robust Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters

Corning, Inc. New York, USA-Daniel Ricoult
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
The implementation of increasingly stringent emission regulations for diesel combustion engines necessitates the use of advanced after-treatment technologies. More specifically, ceramic wall flow filters are widely considered as the preferred approach to eliminate the particulate matter emitted by diesel engines. In addition to filtration efficiency, such a component must be able to accommodate catalysts, have a minimum impact on the overall system pressure drop and be durable for the life of the vehicle. In particular, it must be able to withstand the exothermic excursions occurring during regeneration of the filter, as the soot is burned away.Based on its unique characteristic of refractoriness and high thermal shock resistance, Cordierite has been the material of choice for catalytic substrates for the last three decades. For the same reason, it has also been used as a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), especially for heavy-duty applications. Recent developments in the area of pore microstructure and filter design are described, which lead to further improvement of the performance of Cordierite as a DPF and make it even more attractive for such…
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Gasoline To Gas - Revolution

Tata Motors Ltd., Pune, India-S. Krishnan, D. S. Kulkarni, J. P. Mohite
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India-S. D. Rairikar, K. P. Kavathekar
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Present day technology is continuously being upgraded in order to meet demand for cleaner vehicles by meeting stringent emission norms. The other driving force is vehicle performance in terms of drivability, fuel economy and comfort. Gasoline engine meets all the requirements except fuel economy, where in diesel engine has an advantage. The need of the hour is to achieve drivability, comfort and fuel economy of diesel engine.Apart from development of direct injection common rail and hybrid electric vehicle, this need has also caused development of gaseous fuels like LPG. The gaseous fuel could be CNG, LPG or Hydrogen depending upon the availability. This will also help in delay of depletion of fossil fuel reserves. Main features of this technology are its cost effective operation, modular nature and adaptation on old generation of vehicles. These gaseous fuels are having very simple carbon chain structure with lower carbon to hydrogen ratio of fuel compared to all other crude oil products. Hence they improve the green house gas emissions. Combustion of Natural Gas or LPG gives lower CO2…
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Filtration of Diesel Soot Nanoparticles and Reliability in Swiss HDV Retrofitting

Matter Engineering, Switzerland-T. Mosimann
SwissMid LLC, Switzerland-L. Matthews
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Based on the emission inventory Fig. 1, the Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic diesel particle emissions at type B construction sites [1]. Moreover, particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [2]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with various particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By the year 2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the year 2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%.Traps must pass the VERT suitability test before deployment. The type certification for a representative example of a trap family comprises very detailed measurements of the filtration characteristics and the tendency to secondary emissions. The trap system is also verified in typical field…
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Development of an Analytical Design Concept of Mechanically Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission

TVS Motor Company Ltd., Hosur, India.-Mohan Gangadurai, N. Harikrishnan, B. Sreekumar
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This paper presents an improved design concept for V-belt based mechanically controlled Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). A study was carried out to understand the working principle of a mechanically controlled CVT. The study includes a series of experimental tests on the engine, transmission and vehicle. A theoretical model of the mechanically controlled CVT was developed in MATLab, which was used to determine the optimal parameter values required. A comparative study was carried out between the test results and the theoretical requirements. The component level design constraints were identified which were responsible for the differences in the comparative study. A design concept was evolved, which can emulate the electronically controlled CVTs. Innovative design solutions are derived to remove the identified design constraints and achieve the evolved design concept.
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An Integrated Design Approach for Robust Engine Development: A Case Study

CSM Software, Bangalore, India-S. Moorthi, A. K. Balasubramanian
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India-S. S. Ramdasi, N. V. Marathe
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
The intensifying needs demanded by the legislation, shorter product development cycle and utmost attention given to durability aspects of product have surfaced out various complex technical areas in the field of engine out emissions, FIP hydraulics, computational fluid dynamics, thermal analysis and structural design of components.This paper is an endeavour to present the gesticulations used in one of the upgradation program for improving engine performance to meet desired emission and performance levels with the help of simulation tools and statistical database.The single cylinder air cooled D. I. engine under development is explored first for possible improvements in induction and exhaust systems, FIP performance and combustion package, valve train layout, cylinder head design, fin layout and pattern, features for improvement in oil consumption, modifications in engine block and crankcase etc.Simulation codes are used for prediction of engine performance, emissions, FIP hydraulics characteristics etc. in order to make the product technically and economically viable. Experimental verification is done wherever possible and results presented.The baseline simulation of engine performance for parameters like power, bsfc and various efficiencies along…
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Opto-Electronic Correlation Architectures for the Authentication of Holographic Stickers Pasted on High Security Registration Plates (HSRPs): A Survey

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India-Madhusudan Joshi, S. M. Haragapurkar
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This paper presents a selective review of correlation techniques based on Joint Transform Correlator (JTC) and Matched Filter based Correlator (MFC) used for authentication of holographic stickers pasted on High Security Registration Plates (HSRPs). These techniques can prove to be useful in order to identify the illegal registration plates and help in curbing crime to a greater extent and thereby enhancing the vehicle security.
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Flow Field Analysis of a Carburettor Using CFD

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India-V. Ganesan
UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd., Chennai, india-M. Sivakumar, V. Balasubramanian
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
The objective of present study is to predict and analyze the flow through the Carburettor for two different throttle opening conditions. The studies have been carried out by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software and the prediction has been validated with experimental data. Three dimensional geometrical models of two different throttle positions namely 50% opening and wide open throttle (100% throttle opening) were created using the commercially available software. The mesh was generated using the Tet-hybrid scheme which includes primarily of tetrahedral mesh elements but may also include hexahedral, pyramidal and wedge elements. The pressure boundary conditions are used to define the fluid pressure at the inlet and outlet of the carburettor. The steady state flow field analysis inside a carburettor has been simulated using the Multiphase mixture model and Langrangian Discrete phase model.The CFD plots give informative pictures of the flow field, which will help the designer to understand the effect of various components of carburettor. The predicted air and fuel flow rate shows good agreement with the experimental results. The result obtained from the…
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Gasoline Fuel Injection Investigations On Single Cylinder SI Engine

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India-T. S. Bhatti, L. M. Das, M. K. Gajendra Babu
Pune Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pune, India -A. A. Latey
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Performance, combustion and emissions investigations relating to the use of gasoline injection in a spark ignition engine are described in this paper. The engine used for experimental purpose is a motorcycle engine of 13.4 kW (18 HP). Experimental engine test setup is designed to operate in carburetion as well as in injection mode [1]. Electronic controlled throttle body injection system is designed to operate test engine in injection mode. This paper also present the procedure used for gasoline fuel injection optimization and discussed the results obtain for minimum fuel consumption, for maximum power and for minimum brake specific fuel consumption, for optimization of the start of injection (i.e. injection delay), injection duration and injection pressure, for the entire operating range, of the research engine used for investigation. All other parameters were noted as observed in carburetion mode test, in addition to that start of injection, injection duration, injection pressure were noted. Similar experimentation was carried out for several injection pressures for gasoline fuel. Performance tests conducted with this system showed considerable performance improvement in power…
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Micro-controller Based Electrical Energy Monitoring And Control System for a Low Power Two Wheeler Application

TVS Motor Company, Hosur, India-K. L. Jean, S. J. Dhinagar
Published 2005-01-19 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Automotive electrical system forms the backbone of the modern vehicles. The increase in electrical and electronics equipment fitted in the vehicle has resulted in increased power requirements. Today's two-wheeler vehicle electrical system has a magneto, which is the main source of energy and it is directly coupled with the engine shaft. The magneto output charges the battery as well as supplies power to the load.Because of the engine magneto coupling, as the engine speed increases, the output power of the magneto also increases. So even when power is not required and not necessary in certain situations, power is being generated but not utilized, at the cost of loading the engine and thereby increasing its fuel consumption. This surplus power generation causes power wastage and leads to inefficient power utilization. This unnecessary loading of the engine also reduces the engine torque for traction.The electrical loads on the battery and the magneto are at present controlled by the usage pattern of the driver because the loads are directly linked with the sources by means of the switches.…
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