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SAE 2010 Powertrains Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
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Idle Speed Control of GDI-SI Engines via ECU-1D Engine Co-Simulation

Istituto Motori CNR-Alessandro di Gaeta, Umberto Montanaro, Veniero Giglio
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Idle Speed Control plays a crucial role to reduce fuel consumption that turns in both a direct economic benefit for customers and CO\d reduction particularly important to tackle the progressive global environmental warming. Typically, control strategies available in the automotive literature solve the idle speed control problem acting both on the throttle position and the spark advance, while the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR), that strongly affects the indicated engine torque, is kept at the stoichiometric value for the sake of emission reduction. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, working lean and equipped with proper mechanisms to reduce NOx emissions, overcome this limitation allowing the AFR to be used for the idle speed regulation.In this paper, an effective model of the GDI engine dynamics is derived, tuned and then used to synthesize a gain scheduling control strategy which comprises a feedback action acting on the throttle position, and a feedforward compensator which varies dynamically the demand of the AFR control task. The former control action is mainly exploited to accomplish smooth transitions from/to idle speed regime, whereas the…
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Oil Consumption Sources in a Modern Gasoline Engine Including Contribution of Blow-by Separator and Turbocharger: An Experimental Study Based on the Use of Radiotracers

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DSI-Thierry Delvigne
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2256
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Minimizing engine oil consumption of modern engines has become an important issue and there is a need for better understanding associated sources and mechanisms. An innovative method based on the use of radiotracer compounds that are representative of oil distillation interval has been presented in a previous paper. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate and quantify oil consumption sources in a production turbocharged spark ignition engine at different speed and load conditions. A specific experimental set-up was used to measure independently and in real-time contribution of piston ring package, blow-by circuit, and turbocharger on oil consumption. Results show how contribution of each consumption source varies with engine operating conditions.
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Elemental Composition Determination and Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratios of Gasoline Containing Ethanol

Furey & Associates LLC-Robert Furey
GM Powertrain-Pat Geng
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in modern fuels. Varying combinations of these elements in motor fuel alter the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F). Stoichiometric A/F ratio is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy.With increasing use of ethanol in automotive fuels in recent years, since it can be made from renewable feedstocks, oxygen contents in fuel are increasing. Oxygen contents can be around 1.7 mass % in European E5 gasoline or 3.5 mass % in U.S. E10 gasoline and up to 29 mass % in E85 fuel. The increase in oxygen content of fuel has resulted in changes in other physical and chemical properties due to the differences between ethanol and hydrocarbons refined from fossil oil. A previous paper (SAE 2010-01-1517) discussed the change in energy content of automotive fuel and the estimation of net heating values from common fuel properties. This paper will discuss the estimation of elemental composition and stoichiometric A/F ratios of gasoline-ethanol blends from common fuel properties. While the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen contents…
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A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

BP Japan-Walter Bunting
BP Oil International Ltd-Luc Jolly
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market. Results have indicated that there are certain ratios of FAME from different sources which interact antagonistically to form higher levels of filter deposits. Using this knowledge, experimental fuel formulations for a three-vehicle…
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A Compositional Representative Fuel Model for Biofuels - Application to Diesel Engine Modelling

IFP Energies nouvelles-Rafael Lugo, Vahid Ebrahimian, Catherine Lefebvre, Chawki Habchi, Jean-Charles de Hemptinne
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The adequacy of the fuels with the engines has been often a major goal for the oil industry or car manufacturers. As the formulation of fuels becomes more complex, the use of numerical simulation provides an efficient way to understand and analyze the combustion process. These conclusions become increasingly true with the appearance of second generation biofuels. This paper describes a methodology for the representation of fuels and biofuels using a lumping procedure combined with adequate thermodynamic and thermophysical models. This procedure allows computing different thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for simulation purposes in internal combustion engines. The lumping approach involves reducing analytical data to a few pseudo-components characterized by their molecular weight, critical properties and acentric factor. For gasoline, the detailed gas chromatography analytical data are the sole input, whereas for Diesel two-dimensional chromatography or true boiling point (TBP) distillation curves can be used. The obtained pseudo-components are characterized by their pseudo-formula CxHyOz, their critical properties, their acentric factor, their density and their boiling point. Furthermore, some temperature-dependent properties such as the saturated-liquid density, the…
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Characterization of Multi-hole Spray and Mixing of Ethanol and Gasoline Fuels under DI Engine Conditions

Delphi Energy & Engine Mgmt. Systems-Wayne Moore
Wayne State Univ-Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points. Both high-speed Schlieren and Mie scattering results are presented for tests in pressurized chamber and optical accessible engine. Multidimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for predicting DI multi-hole ethanol spray behaviors in optical engine is also discussed. The effects of injection timing on the bulk flow motion and fuel-air…
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Effect of Viscosity Index Improvers in Ethanol/Gasoline/Water Emulsions Formed with E25 and E85 in Passenger Car Motor Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Oronite Co. LLC-Pritesh A. Patel, Catherine S. Puckett, David S. George, Kirk A. Nass
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2258
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Concern about the consequences of fuel dilution on engine oil properties are intensifying due to the increasing use of E25 and E85 fuel in passenger cars. Notably, such concerns are about the effect of emulsion formation and stability in crankcase oils by E25 or E85 fuel and water dilution on vehicle operation at cold-start conditions. Different types of Viscosity Index Improver (VII) chemistries were evaluated for their effects on emulsion formation and engine oil characteristics. Emulsions were prepared with fresh and used passenger car motor oils using the ASTM D7563 method for emulsion retention. The emulsion properties were evaluated after storage for 24 hours at two different temperatures. Separate oil/gasoline and emulsion (ethanol/water/oil) phases were observed for fresh oil emulsions. None of the emulsions exhibited a separate water phase, regardless of the type of VII in the oil. Analysis of the emulsion composition by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography confirmed ethanol and water were present in the emulsion phase, while the gasoline and other oil soluble components, including the VII, were present…
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Emissions of Non-regulated Pollutants from European Passenger Cars of Different Technology

Hellenic Open Univ.-Efthimios Zervas
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Passenger cars emit exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NOx in the case of gasoline engines and also particulate matter (PM) in the case of diesel engines); however, they also emit several other pollutants which are not regulated (non-regulated pollutants, NRP). These pollutants are emitted in much lower concentrations than the regulated ones; however, they are sometimes much more dangerous for the environment and the human health. This work shows the emissions of several non-regulated pollutants of gasoline and diesel European passenger cars tested on the New European Driving Cycle. The pollutants studied in this work are individual HC and HC families, N₂O and NH₃, carbonyl compounds, PAH and nitro-PAH. The impact of emission technology from Euro1 to Tax Incentives Euro4, which are related with the emission level of regulated pollutants, and of mileage are presented and discussed.
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The Types and Relationship to Copper Strip Corrosion of Sulfides in LPG

Petrochina Lanzhou Lubricating Oil R&D Institute-Xingguo Cheng
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) just like Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) can be used as fuel for domestic and commercial purposes like town gas and auto gas. Although the caustic sulfur components derived from Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) processing in LPG have been removed before the LPG is transported into tanks, sometimes the case converted the result of copper strip corrosion test from passing to failing still happened when the LPG were stored in tanks for several days in some refineries. In order to find out which kind of sulfide components are the resource of corrosion, the sulfur species in LPG batches that passed and failed in copper strip corrosion test had been analyzed by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Photometric Detector (GC-FPD), and the conversion law among the different sulfide components was discovered. From the study results, it can be found that the hydrogen sulfide and Methanethiol in LPG cause LPG to fail the copper strip corrosion test, and they are derived from dimethyl disulfide Ο, which is the main sulfur compound in LPG.…
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Using Engine Experiments to Isolate Fuel Equivalence Ratio Effects on Heat Release in HCCI Combustion

Saudi Aramco-Hassan Babiker, Oliver Mathieu, Amer Amer, Yoann Viollet, Ahmar Ghauri
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Detailed combustion studies have historically been conducted in simplified reacting systems, such as shock-tubes and rapid compression machines. The reciprocating internal combustion engine presents many challenges when used to isolate the effects of fuel chemistry from thermodynamics. On the other hand, the conditions in such engines are the most representative in terms of pressure and temperature histories. This paper describes the use of a single-cylinder research engine as an advanced reactor to better determine fuel effects experimentally. In particular, a single-cylinder engine was operated in a manner that allowed the effects of changes in charge composition and temperatures to be isolated from changes in equivalence ratio. An example study is presented where the relative effects of low-temperature and high-temperature chemistry, and their effects on combustion phasing, are isolated and examined. A single-zone homogeneous model based on Chemkin™ code with detailed chemistry was interrogated to better understand some of the trends identified.The engine was operated in HCCI mode under both steady-state conditions and in an alternate-fired mode. The technique allows the effect of fuel/air equivalence ratio…
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