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Evaluation of a Robust Haptic Interface for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Clemson University, USA-Chengshi Wang, Yue Wang, John R. Wagner
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0007
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
The advent of steer-by-wire technologies has changed the driving paradigm for drivers and vehicle autonomy. Such technologies integrate electric motors to actuate the tire-road plus human-machine interfaces. Steer-by-wire vehicles can benefit from haptic concepts through the provision of tunable force feedback, coupled with nonlinear control, to introduce lane keeping and pathway following technologies that minimize and possibly eliminate driver actions. In this article, two vehicle haptic interfaces, including a robotic grip and a joystick, both of which are accompanied by nonlinear sliding mode control, have been developed and studied on a steer-by-wire platform integrated with a virtual reality driving environment. An operator-in-the-loop evaluation that included 30 human test subjects investigated these haptic steering interfaces over a prescribed series of driving maneuvers through real-time data logging and post-test questionnaires. A conventional steering wheel with the robust sliding mode controller was used for all the driving events for comparison. Subjective and objective results from the tests demonstrate that the driver’s experience can be enhanced by up to 76.3% with a robotic grip steering input when compared to…
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Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

Clemson University-Fangjian Li, John R. Wagner, Yue Wang
U.S. Army TARDEC-Dariusz Mikulski
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors. To deal with inaccurate information due to a V2C cyber attack, a RoboTrust algorithm is designed to analyze vehicle trustworthiness and eliminate information with low credit. Finally, a human operator scheduling algorithm is proposed when the number of abnormal UGVs exceeds the limit of what human operators can handle concurrently. Representative simulation results…
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The Computational Cost and Accuracy of Spray Droplet Collision Models

ANSYS Inc.-Arpit Agarwal, Yue Wang, Long Liang, Chitralkumar Naik, Ellen Meeks
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study focuses on Lagrangian spray models that are commonly used in engine CFD simulations. In modeling sprays, droplet collision is one of the physical phenomena that must be accounted for. There are two main parts of droplet collision models for sprays - detecting colliding pairs of droplets and predicting the outcomes of these collisions. For the first part, we focus on the efficiency of the algorithm. We present an implementation of the arbitrary adaptive collision mesh model of Hou and Schmidt [1], and examine its efficiency in dealing with large simulations. Through theoretical analysis and numerical tests, we show that the computational cost of this model scales pseudo-linearly with respect to the number of parcels in the sprays. Regarding the second part, we examine the variations in existing phenomenological models used for predicting binary droplet collision outcomes. A quantitative accuracy metric is used to evaluate the models with respect to the experimental data set. To provide a holistic perspective, three different experimental datasets that contain over 2000 data points are collated, and used in…
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Large-Eddy Simulation and Analysis of Turbulent Flows in a Motored Spark-Ignition Engine

ANSYS Inc-Devyani Patil, Yue Wang, Long Liang, Karthik Puduppakkam, Ahmed Hussein, Chitralkumar Naik, Ellen Meeks
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Advanced research in Spark-ignition (SI) engines has been focused on dilute-combustion concepts. For example, exhaust-gas recirculation is used to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions while maintaining or enhancing engine performance, durability and reliability. These advancements achieve higher engine efficiency but may deteriorate combustion stability. One symptom of instability is a large cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) in the in-cylinder flow and combustion metrics. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method that may be used to quantify CCV through numerical prediction of the turbulent flow and combustion processes in the engine over many engine cycles.In this study, we focus on evaluating the capability of LES to predict the in-cylinder flows and gas exchange processes in a motored SI engine installed with a transparent combustion chamber (TCC), comparing with recently published data. Numerical simulations are performed using the commercial CFD software, ANSYS Forte, employing a classical Smagorinsky sub-grid-scale (SGS) model for the LES approach. Two important aspects of the model, namely the coefficient of sub-grid viscosity used in the Smagorinsky model, and the numerical…
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Evaluation of Alternative Steering Devices with Adjustable Haptic Feedback for Semi-Autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

Clemson University-Chengshi Wang, Yue Wang, John R. Wagner
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Emerging autonomous driving technologies, with emergency navigating capabilities, necessitates innovative vehicle steering methods for operators during unanticipated scenarios. A reconfigurable “plug and play” steering system paradigm enables lateral control from any seating position in the vehicle’s interior. When required, drivers may access a stowed steering input device, establish communications with the vehicle steering subsystem, and provide direct wheel commands. Accordingly, the provision of haptic steering cues and lane keeping assistance to navigate roadways will be helpful. In this study, various steering devices have been investigated which offer reconfigurability and haptic feedback to create a flexible driving environment. A joystick and a robotic arm that offer multiple degrees of freedom were compared to a conventional steering wheel. To evaluate the concept, human test subjects interacted with the experimental system featuring a driving simulator with target hardware, and completed post-test questionnaires. Based on the data collected, drivers’ lane keeping performance was superior using a haptic robotic arm with haptic feedback to the joystick and steering wheel with an improvement of up to 70.18% during extreme maneuvers. Haptic…
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Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) for Gas Jet and Sprays

ANSYS Inc.-Yue Wang, Cheng Wang, Anthony Shelburn, Long Liang, Karthik Puduppakkam, Abhijit Modak, Chitralkumar Naik, Ellen Meeks
University of Wisconsin-Chi-Wei Tsang, Christopher Rutland
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared.The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes. These configurations include a turbulent planar gas jet, an evaporating and non-reacting spray, and a reacting spray. In the gas-jet case, predicted time-averaged and root-mean-squared (RMS) flow speed and Reynolds stress are validated against experimental and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. Qualitative results, including the…
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Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays Using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization (ELSA) Model Coupled with Nozzle Flow

GM Research Labs-Ramachandra Diwakar
Univ of Wisconsin-Yue Wang, Won Geun Lee, Rolf D. Reitz
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
High-pressure diesel sprays were simulated with an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization (ELSA) model, based on a multidimensional engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code KIVA-3V. The atomization of the dense liquid core in the near-nozzle region was modeled with turbulent mixing of the diesel fuel with the ambient gas. Under the continuum assumption of a fuel-air mixture in this region, two transport equations were solved for the liquid mass fraction and liquid surface area density. At a certain downstream location where the spray became dilute, a switch from the Eulerian to the Lagrangian approach was made to benefit from the advantages of the conventional Lagrangian droplet models, such as droplet collision and turbulent dispersion modeling. The droplet size and velocity to be initialized at this switch were determined by the local CFD cell properties. As an integral part of this study, the internal nozzle flow of a 7 hole, midi sac injector was simulated with a Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM). The model assumed an isothermal mixture of fuel liquid and vapor, whose pressure and density can…
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Validation of Mesh- and Timestep- Independent Spray Models for Multi-Dimensional Engine CFD Simulation

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison-Yue Wang, Hai-Wen Ge, Rolf D. Reitz
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0626
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Resolution of droplet-scale processes occurring within engine sprays in multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is not possible because impractically refined numerical meshes or time steps would be required. As a result, simulations that use coarse meshes and large time steps suffer from inaccurate predictions of mass, momentum and energy transfer between the spray drops and the combustion chamber gas, or poor prediction of droplet breakup and collision and coalescence processes. Several new spray models have been proposed to address these deficiencies, including use of an unsteady gas jet model to improve momentum transfer predictions in under-resolved regions of the spray, a vapor particle model to minimize numerical diffusion effects, and a Radius of Influence drop collision model to ensure consistent collision computations on different meshes. The present work combines these models with improved KH-RT models to improve the consistency of drop breakup predictions. A modified mean collision time model is also proposed to reduce timestep dependency of droplet collision prediction. The models have been implemented into the KIVA CFD code and are demonstrated to…
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