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Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Electric Bus Body

ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Electric Passenger Car Using Wind Turbine Concept at Front End

ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9%.
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Spring and Damper Tuning of an ATV to Reduce Transmissibility

ARAI Academy-Rajat Girish Kanade, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2401
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The application in vehicle ride and handling has been mostly subjective or intuitive. There are several methods to improve vehicle stability and handling. One of the methods is suspension tuning. The objective of this work is to perform dynamical analysis of suspension by spring and damper tuning to reduce transmissibility for an all-terrain vehicle. A baseline spring rate data is used for tuning to provide better ride. The Fox air shock absorbers with progressive damping are used for testing. First the dynamics simulation is carried out by using ADAMS CAR tool. A detailed characteristic of the air shocks is obtained at various loading conditions by experimentation using test rig. Based on it, the simulation has been carried out for desired tuning parameters of spring and damper to improve stability. The speculated optimum setting is validated on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) using ultrasonic sensors, by varying vehicle speed and bump heights to evaluate the transmissibility of the suspension. The acquired data shows behaviour of the suspension and the influence of the main parameters in the transmissibility.…
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Race Car Using Active Wing Concept

ARAI Academy-Prakash P Bhanushali
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2395
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In high speed race cars, aerodynamics is an important aspect for determining performance and stability of vehicle. It is mainly influenced by front and rear wings. Active aerodynamics consist of any type of movable wing element that change their position based on operating conditions of the vehicle to have better performance and handling. In this work, front and rear wings are designed for race car prototype of race car. The high down force aerofoil profiles have been used for design of front and rear wing. The first aerodynamic analysis has been performed on baseline model without wings using CFD tool. For investigation, parameters considered are angle of attack in the range of 0-18° for front as well as rear wing at different test speeds of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kmph. The simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results show significant improvement in vehicle performance and handling parameters. To validate the results, a scaled model prototype is manufactured and tested in wind tunnel.
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Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

ARAI Academy-Raghav Tandon
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2408
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks tool and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent. The result shows a significant drag reduction of 12.23% using active grill shutters and air dams.
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Experimental Investigations on Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engine Using Methanol - Gasoline Blends

The Automotive Research Association of India-Kamalkishore Vora
VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology-Suresh Devunuri
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The present study discusses the effects of engine combustion, performance and emission features of methanol-gasoline blend fired lean burn Spark Ignition (SI) engine. Performance features such as Brake Power (BP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), tail pipe emissions namely Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxide (NO), Carbon di Oxide (CO2) and combustion characteristics viz. in-cylinder pressure, Heat Release Rate (HRR), Cumulative Heat Release (CHR) and variation of mean effective pressure were measured and compared with that of neat gasoline. Experiments were conducted on a modified sole cylinder four-stroke compression engine (Kirloskar TAF1) to operate as SI engine with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. A new manifold injection system and ignition system were developed by replacing the fuel injection pump and injector. The engine is operated at constant speed of 1500 rpm with different methanol proportions (5%, 10%, and 20%) blended to gasoline under part throttle condition at diverse equivalence ratios. Results revealed that with 5% methanol blend, there was an increase of 3.5% and 5.5% in BP and BTE when…
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Assessment on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Diesel, Algae Biodiesel and Heptanol

The Automotive Research Association of India-Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Vora
Vellore Institute Of Technology, Vellore-Supramani Saravanan, Sagar Gupta, Rameshkumar Chidambaram
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Because of higher NOx and PM emissions Compression Ignition (CI) engines are slowly being replaced by gas engines in metro cities though CI engine have better thermal efficiency and emit less Carbon monoxide (CO) and Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC) emission than SI engines. Pollutants formed during combustion, depleting fossil fuels and continuous raising fuel price pushes the research community to find new alternative fuels which can be used along with diesel or replace the diesel without making major modifications in the current engine. The objective of this research work is to derive bio-diesel fuel from the source of algae and use it as a fuel by blending with commercially available diesel fuel. Heptanol is added along with algae bio-diesel and diesel blend to improve the ignition quality of the blend. Tests were conducted on a single cylinder constant speed, water cooled stationary diesel engine with different blends proportions of heptanol-biodiesel-diesel. The experimental results obtained for seven different types of blend proportions were compared with baseline diesel values. This research study reveals significant decrease in HC, CO,…
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Modeling and Simulation of Steady State Handling Characteristics of Formula Vehicle with Antiroll Bars

College of Engineering Pune-Amit Gupta, Suraj Jadhav, Ramchandra Mane
The Automotive Research Association of India-Kamalkishore Vora, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Antiroll bar plays an important role in rollover stability of the vehicle. But not only does it limit the vehicle roll during cornering, but also alters the lateral load transfer between the tracks, which in turn affects the cornering performance of the vehicle. This paper deals with the design and mathematical modeling of antiroll bars to reduce the body roll of the vehicle from 1.5°/g to less than 1.0°/g. Rear bar uses a conventional torsion type bar but the front anti roll mechanism is an unconventional antiroll bar using a rotating double cantilever mechanism. Mathematical modeling is done for pushrod rod actuated antiroll mechanisms to simulate its non-linear roll rates. Antiroll bars for front and rear are designed for the calculated stiffness. Finite Element Analysis of antiroll bar and its components is done and the mechanism is tested on the vehicle. Steady state tire model parameters are generated by curve fitting tire testing data into pacejka coefficients. Then the vehicle mathematical model is built and simulated in multi-body simulation tool CarSim for various steady state…
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Biodiesel from Microalgae

Automotive Research Association of India-R Nagarajan, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Vora
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
Microalgae as feedstock are the potential third generation biofuels. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganism which requires light, carbon-di-oxide, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium for growth and to produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short a periods of time. The production of biofuels from microalgal is a viable alternative due to their easy adaptability to growth conditions, possibility of growing biomass either in fresh or marine waters. Hence the current project was designed to elucidate the biodiesel producing ability of blue-green algae such as Spirulina platensis and Green algae Chlorella vulgaris. The selected algae were cultivated in suitable growth media such as modified Zarrouke medium and bold basal medium, respectively. The Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were mass cultured for 8 days then harvested using 50 micron nylon filters and dried in sunlight to obtain dry biomass. The dried microalgal biomass was extracted for bio-oil production. The extracted bio-oil was analyzed in gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS) to derive its fatty acid profile. From the results, it is clear that 60oC temperature was optimum for…
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Electro-Pneumatic Shifting System and Gear Control Unit for a Sequential Gearbox

ARAI-Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI Academy/VIT University-Siddharth Dahiya
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design methodology and algorithm development towards the design of an automatic external gear-shifting and clutch-actuation system for a sequential gearbox with the aim of providing the drivers with easier and an efficient means of shifting gears. Automatically actuated manual transmission system bridges the gap between automatic and manual transmissions which provides the advantages of both type of transmissions. This would ideally leads to faster shifting time and provide significant benefits in the form of electronic-aids like launch control and traction control. Removal of mechanical clutching would reduce fatigue and lead to ergonomic benefit. Based on the benchmarking performed on an easily available ready-to-install aftermarket alternative, options will be considered for the actuating mechanism and the most feasible will be used to develop a shifting system. A total shift time of about 100ms for upshifts and 150ms for downshifts without acceleration flatlining is the desired output. The developed system should be usable on any similar engine with a sequential gearbox by making small modifications to the GCU code and actuator force. The…
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