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Turbell, Thomas
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Optimizing Seat Belt Usage By Interlock Systems

AUTOLIV Development AB-Torbjörn Andersson
Chalmers University of Technology-Per Lövsund
  • Technical Paper
  • 976007
Published 1996-05-13 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Seat belts are known to be very effective, reducing the risk of injury by approximately 50% when used. Such high effectiveness is, however, based on the fact that all car occupants use the available belts. In several studies it has been shown that, in severe accidents, the seat belt use was less than 50%.In order to increase the wearing rate more drastic solutions than information, legislation, etc., have to be used. A Swedish group, representing government, research, insurance companies, car and restraint systems industry has approached the problem by proposing a smart system that will force car occupants, that normally are unbelted, to use the seat belts by systems that will interfere with the normal use of the car. Different technical approaches, which not in nay way will interfere with the normal belt user, will be put forward and evaluated. The problem will also be discussed from a cost-effectiveness point of view and the potential of saving lives in an international perspective will be analyzed. It is shown that more than 6,000 lives could be…
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ECE Regulation 44 - An Update on the Current Revision

Department of Transport, London-John A. Jeyes
Swedish Road and Transport Research institute-Thomas Turbell
Published 1993-11-01 by SAE International in United States
After 12 years since the introduction and approx. 500 approvals according to ECE Regulation 44 on Child Restraint Systems a major revision is now being done. The revision is scheduled to be completed in 1993. The main features of the update are: Better Definitions and instructionsAir Bag interactionMandatory strong crotch strapsHigher buckle opening forcesNew mass group and dummyMore realistic dynamic testingCompatibility checks on vehicle seating positionsSide impactsVarious other improvementsConformity of productionLonger term solutions dependant on ISOThe paper will present an update on some of the most interesting parts of this work.
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ISOFlX - A New Concept of Installing Child Restraints in Cars

FOLKSAM Research-Claes Tingvall
Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
Published 1993-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Even though child restraint systems (CRS) are very effective there are still serious problems because of non-use or misuse. This is often due to the fact that the installation of the CRS in the cars is difficult, complicated and unstable. A standardised interface between the CRS and the car seat would solve these problems. Within the IS0 Committee ISO/TC22/SC12NVGl this item has been raised and several proposals for an “ISOFIX have been discussed. Apart from the installation aspects, other features e.g. disconnection of passenger airbags can be included in the system. Several concepts called ISOFlX type 1 to 7 with different working names e.g. DELTAFIX, EASY-FIX, MONOFIX and UNlFlX have been evaluated. The handling performance of some of the prototypes have been tested by customer evaluation with very positive results. Crash performance has also been investigated.The paper will give an update on the latest progress of this development, including a preliminary specification.
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Experience from Four Years of Activity in the ISO Working Group on Child Restraint Systems

Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution-Peter Claesson
Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
Published 1993-11-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper will summarise the experience of four years activities in the International Standardization Organisation (ISO) working group on child restraint systems in road vehicles. The background for the formation of the working group will be explained. The initial discussion of possible working areas and their priority will be reviewed. It was found that the principal, most urgent areas for investigation of possible future safety standards were compatibility and misuse. Within these areas, the results will be explained in detail, and what possible future Standards or Technical Reports can be foreseen as a result of the work of this ISO working group.
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Are Air Bags Compatible With Child Restraint Systems and Roadside Safety Features

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
  • Technical Paper
  • 916142
Published 1991-11-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
For about 20 years rearward facing child seats have been used in Sweden for children up to the age of 3 years. These seats are usually mounted in the front seat passenger position leaning against the dashboard. The protection performance has been shown to be excellent (90-95% injury reduction) and this concept is now being adopted in other countries. A passenger air bag can obviously be dangerous in combination with this type of child seats and some dynamic tests have been done with different combinations. These tests show that the dummy accelerations will reach very high levels and that some child seats will disintegrate. This paper will present these results and discuss possible countermeasures. The new requirements for roadside safety features that are now being developed in Europe and the USA are based on the assumption that passengers are not using seatbelts. These requirements will encourage the development of systems with a low g-level at the beginning of the collision in order to let the unbelted occupants hit the dashboard with a low impact speed.…

Load Transfer From the Striking Vehicle in Side and Pedestrian Impacts

Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Bertil Aldman, Janusz Kajzer
National Testing Institute of Sweden-Merih Malmqvist
  • Technical Paper
  • 856082
Published 1985-01-01 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The level at which forces are transmitted from the striking vehicle in side impacts may influence the response of the struck car in several different ways. A better contact between the front bumper of the striking and the sill area of the struck car has been considered to be desirable in this respect.In side impacts, the most frequent direction of the impact is from 3 and 9 o'clock, while the direction of the forces is usually from 2 and 10 o'clock due to the velocity of the struck car. A European car and the EEVC moving deformable barrier have, therefore, been used in a crabbed mode to study the problem of load transfer at different levels above the ground. Volvo and Saab cars were used as targets in 55 km/h side impact with an APROD-81 side impact dummy placed on the struck side in the front seat. The results indicate that a difference in the level at which the loads were applied could influence the deformations, the kinematics of the struck cars, and the loading…
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A Global Approach to Child Restraint Systems

Chalmers University of Technology Sweden-Bertil Aldman
National Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute Sweden-Thomas Turbell
Published 1983-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The present situation as regards child restraints in Sweden is described. The concept of having small children travelling in rearward facing child seats in the front seat of the car is discussed, based on 15 years experience of these systems in use. Booster systems which allow the older children to use existing adult belts have been bought for more than 50% of the children the last years and some aspects of this development are presented. The development of a special booster seat for handicapped children as well as the present situation on the European legislative work are also reported.
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