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Somers, J. H.
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Sulfuric Acid Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-J. H. Somers, R. Lawrence, C. E. Fett, T. M. Baines, R. J. Garbe
Published 1976-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the systems used by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA to measure and analyze automotive sulfuric acid emissions. This system involves mixing the entire vehicle exhaust with dilution air in a dilution tunnel. Sulfuric acid samples are collected by passing a small portion of the dilute exhaust through Fluoropore filters. The sulfuric acid content of the filters is determined by an automated barium chloranilate method.This paper also discusses test results from a number of advanced prototype vehicles including two stratified charge cars, a Dresser carburetor vehicle, three dual catalyst cars, and a 3-way catalyst car.
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Control of Automotive Sulfate Emissions

Exxon Research and Engineering Company-E. L. Holt, K. C. Bachman, W. R. Leppard, E. E. Wigg
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-J. H. Somers
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A study has been made of potential methods for controlling SO4= emissions from oxidation catalyst-equipped vehicles. The methods considered included operating condition and catalyst changes, as well as the use of a vehicle trap for SO4=. Emissions of SO4= from non-catalyst cars were also measured.The only engine operating variable we found to significantly lower SO4= emission was exhaust gas O2 level. Limiting air pump use reduced SO4= emissions by factors of 5 to 7 over the FTP, and by factors of 2 to more than 10 at 96 km/h. Some increase in CO and HC emissions was observed when the greatest SO4= reductions were achieved, but it appears that properly modulated carburetion could overcome this problem. Limited excess air shows great promise as a means of minimizing SO4= emissions. Use of a three-way or oxidation catalyst system with closed-loop fuel metering control achieved very low levels of SO4=, while simultaneously controlling CO and HC, at the stoichiometric A/F ratio and slightly leaner than stoichiometric.Pelleted catalysts emitted lower amounts of SO4= during low speed operation than…
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Gasoline Lead Additive and Cost Effects of Potential 1975-1976 Emission Control Systems

Aerospace Corp.-M. G. Hinton, T. Iura, J. Meltzer
Div. of Emission Control Technology, Office of Air Programs, Environmental Protection Agency-J. H. Somers
Published 1973-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A study was conducted in 1971 to assess the overall effects of lead additives in gasoline on the performance, durability, and costs of emission control devices/systems which might be used to meet the 1975-1976 federal emission standards for light-duty motor vehicles. Although no system has yet demonstrated meeting the 50,000-mile emission level lifetime, all currently planned 1975-1976 emission control systems include a catalytic converter. However, lead additives are toxic to catalytic materials; they reduce catalytic activity, which results in increasing emission levels with mileage accumulation. Unleaded gasoline would be required in quantities sufficient to satisfy the demands of vehicles equipped with a catalytic converter in order to prevent catalyst activity degradation from lead additives. Implementation of such advanced emission control systems implies very high cost to the consumer, with the cost being a strong function of the required NOx emission level. At this time, estimated overall costs to the consumer (initial, maintenance, and operating) for emission control systems being considered for the 1976 federal emission standards are $860 above average 1970 vehicle costs, over an…
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The Characterization of Odor Components in Diesel Exhaust Gas - (Report of CRC-APRAC-CAPE-7-68 Project)

Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Control Offices, Division of Motor Vehicle Research and Development-J. H. Somers
Gulf Research and Development Co.-R. S. Spindt
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The Coordinating Research Council and the Air Pollution Control Office of the Environmental Protection Agency have jointly supported the Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee Project CAPE-7-68 to analyze and identify the odor-relevant compounds present in diesel exhaust gases. This paper summarizes the experimental results obtained by Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute and Arthur D. Little, Inc. Both contractors found certain fuel fractions to be odor relevant. Many mono and polyoxygenated partial oxidation products have been identified, at least by structural class. These odorous compounds occur at very low concentrations in the exhaust gases.
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