Your Selections

Safoutin, Michael
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Anthony Neam, Joseph McDonald, Kevin Newman
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ). This paper presents controls development, modeling results, and model validation for simulations of a vehicle with a 48 V Belt Integrated Starter Generator (BISG) mild hybrid electric vehicle and an initial model design for a 48 V inline on-axis P2-configuration mild hybrid electric vehicle. Both configurations were modeled with a MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow tool, which has been integrated into EPA’s ALPHA vehicle model and was also used to model components within Gamma Technology GT-DRIVE simulations.…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0433
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks. Resistances and capacitances were calculated using test data from an 8 Ah, 0.4 kWh, 48V (nominal) lithium-ion battery obtained from a Tier 1 automotive supplier, A123 Systems, and developed specifically for 48V mild hybrid vehicle applications. The A123 Systems battery has 14 pouch-type lithium-ion cells arranged in a 14 series and 1 parallel (14S1P) configuration. The RC battery model…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Modeling and Validation of 12V Lead-Acid Battery for Stop-Start Technology

US EPA-SoDuk Lee, Joseph McDonald
US Environmental Protection Agency-Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of stop-start technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.Stop-start technology is widespread in Europe due to high fuel prices and due to stringent EU CO2 emissions standards beginning in 2012. Stop-start has recently appeared as a standard equipment option on high-volume vehicles like the Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Fusion, Chrysler 200, Jeep Cherokee, and Ram 1500 truck. EPA has included stop-start technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with the standards. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery.The introduction of stop-start has stimulated development of 12-volt battery systems capable of providing the enhanced performance and cycle life durability that it requires. Much of this activity has involved advanced lithium-ion chemistries, variations of lead-acid chemistries, such as absorbed-glass-mat (AGM) designs, and lead-carbon formulations.EPA tested several AGM batteries that are used in OEM start-stop systems. The purpose of this testing was…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Effect of Current and SOC on Round-Trip Energy Efficiency of a Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Pack

US Environmental Protection Agency-Michael Safoutin, Jeff Cherry, Joseph McDonald, SoDuk Lee
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While equivalent circuit modeling is an effective way to model the performance of automotive Li-ion batteries, in some applications it is more convenient to refer to round-trip energy efficiency. Energy efficiency of either cells or full packs is seldom documented by manufacturers in enough detail to provide an accurate impression of this metric over a range of operating conditions. The energy efficiency of a full battery pack may also be subject to more variables than would be represented by extrapolating results obtained from a single cell, and can be more demanding to measure in an accurate and consistent manner. Roundtrip energy efficiency of a 22.8-kWh A123 Li-ion (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4) battery pack was measured by applying a fixed quantity of charge and discharge current between 0.2C and 2C rates and at SOCs between 10% and 90% at an average temperature of 23°C.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

HIL Development and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

US Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Byungho Lee, Joseph McDonald, Michael Safoutin
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A Battery Test Facility (BTF) has been constructed at United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to test various automotive battery packs for HEV, PHEV, and EV vehicles. Battery pack tests were performed in the BTF using a battery cycler, testing controllers, battery pack cooler, and a temperature controlled chamber. For e-machine testing and HEV power pack component testing, a variety of different battery packs are needed to power these devices to simulate in-vehicle conditions. For in-house e-machine testing and development, it is cost prohibitive to purchase a variety of battery packs, and also very time-consuming to interpret the battery management systems, CAN signals, and other interfaces for different vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, there is a need to accurately emulate battery pack voltage, power, current, State of Charge (SOC), etc. for testing e-machines as well as performing real-time HIL (Hardware-In-Loop) vehicle simulations by having the ability to instantly select a cell chemistry along with battery pack configuration such as cell capacity, number of cells in series/parallel, coolant type, etc.This paper presents lithium-ion battery pack HIL development and…
Annotation ability available