This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effect of Current and SOC on Round-Trip Energy Efficiency of a Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Pack
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
While equivalent circuit modeling is an effective way to model the performance of automotive Li-ion batteries, in some applications it is more convenient to refer to round-trip energy efficiency. Energy efficiency of either cells or full packs is seldom documented by manufacturers in enough detail to provide an accurate impression of this metric over a range of operating conditions. The energy efficiency of a full battery pack may also be subject to more variables than would be represented by extrapolating results obtained from a single cell, and can be more demanding to measure in an accurate and consistent manner. Roundtrip energy efficiency of a 22.8-kWh A123 Li-ion (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4) battery pack was measured by applying a fixed quantity of charge and discharge current between 0.2C and 2C rates and at SOCs between 10% and 90% at an average temperature of 23°C.
CitationSafoutin, M., Cherry, J., McDonald, J., and Lee, S., "Effect of Current and SOC on Round-Trip Energy Efficiency of a Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Pack," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1186, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1186.
- Lee, S., Lee, B., McDonald, J., and Nam, E., “Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Automotive Battery Packs,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1539, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1539.
- Chen, Min and Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A., “Accurate electrical battery model capable of predicting runtime and I-V performance,” IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol. 21, No. 2, June 2006, 504-511.
- Huria, T., Ceraolo, M., Gazzarri, J., and Jackey, R., “High Fidelity Electrical Model with Thermal Dependence for Characterization and Simulation of High Power Lithium Battery Cells”, Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), 2012 IEEE International, pp. 1-8, 4-8 March 2012. doi:10.1109/IEVC.2012.6183271
- He, H., Xiong, R. and Fan, Jinxin, “Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach”, Energies 2011, 4, pp. 582-598; doi:10.3390/en4040582
- Perez, H., Siegel, J., Lin, X., Stefanopoulou, A., et al. “Parameterization and Validation of an Integrated Electro-Thermal Cylindrical LFP Battery Model”, ASME 2012 5th Annual Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, DSCC-2012-MOVIC 2012, v. 3 pp. 41-50, 2012.
- Johnson, V., “Battery Performance Models in ADVISOR”, Journal of Power Sources v. 110 pp. 321-329, 2002.
- Schweighofer, B., Raab, K., and Brasseur, G., “Modeling of High Power Automotive Batteries by the Use of an Automated Test System”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, v. 52 no. 4, pp. 1087-1091, August 2003.
- Burke, A., “Performance Testing of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for EV and PHEV Applications”, 2009 ZEV Symposium, Sacramento CA, September 22, 2009.
- Culcu, H., Verbrugge, B., Omar, N., Van Den Bossche, P., et al., “Internal Resistance of Cells of Lithium Battery Modules with Freedom CAR Model”, World Electric Vehicle Journal Vol. 3, EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium, 2009.
- Lee, S., Cherry, J., Lee, B., McDonald, J. et al., “HIL Development and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1863, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1863.
- Moore, S. and Schneider, P., “A Review of Cell Equalization Methods for Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer Battery Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0959, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0959.
- A123 Systems, Inc., “Nanophosphate Basics: An Overview of the Structure, Properties and Benefits of A123 Systems' Proprietary Lithium Ion Battery Technology”, A123 White Paper, 2011
- Dagci, O., Pereira, N., and Cherry, J., “Maneuver-Based Battery-in-the-Loop Testing - Bringing Reality to Lab,” SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 2(1):7-17, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0157.
- U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, “Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedures Manual”, Revision 2 (January 1996).
- Burke, A., and Miller, M., “The Power Capability of Ultracapacitors and Lithium Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Applications”, Journal of Power Sources v. 196 pp. 514-522 (2011); doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.06.092
- Valoen, L. O. and Shoesmith, M. I., “The Effect of PHEV and HEV Duty Cycles on Battery and Battery Pack Performance”, Proceedings PHEV 2007 Conference, Nov. 1-2 2007, Winnipeg MT Canada, at http://www.pluginhighway.ca
- Bond, T., Burns, J., Stevens, D., Dahn, H. et al., “Improving Precision and Accuracy in Coulombic Efficiency Measurements of Li-ion Batteries”, J. Electrochem. Soc. 160, A521-A527, 2013.
- Duoba, M. and Carlson, R., “Test Procedures and Benchmarking: Blended-Type and EV-Capable Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles”, Argonne National Laboratory (2008).
- Burke, A. and Miller, M., “The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project”, University of California-Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Report, Reference No. UCD-ITS-RR-09-18, June 2009.