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An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm for heavy commercial vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Sonu Paroche
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2550
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm. This is significant reduce in cost of material and assembly procedure. A 2-d simulation and finite element…
 

Physical and Virtual Simulation of Lightweight Brake Drum Design for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Using Alternate Material Technologies

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Himanshu Deshmukh, Shivdayal Prasad, Sonu Paroche, Ashesh Anil Shah
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Brake drum in commercial vehicles is very important aggregate contributing towards major weight in brake system module. The main function of brake drum is to dissipate kinetic energy of vehicle into thermal energy, as a results in braking operation major load comes on brake drum. Hence this is very critical component for vehicle safety and stability [1].Objective of this paper is to increase the pay load, which is utmost important parameter for commercial vehicle end customers. To achieve the light weighing target, alternate materials such as Spheroidal graphite iron (SGI) has been evaluated for development of brake drum. Many critical parameters in terms of reliability, safety and durability, thickness of hub, wheel loading, heat generation on drum, manufacturing and assembly process are taken into consideration. The sensitivity of these parameters is studied for optimum design, could be chosen complying each other’s values.Digital thermal performance evaluated in house, fine-tuned and verified by correlating with test data available for existing cast iron design and then applied for new design with alternate materials. In two different designs around…
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Optimization of Propeller Shaft Vibrations in Truck Segment through Physical and Virtual Simulations

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Jeevan Jathar, Sonu Paroche, Kunal Kamal, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents theoretical calculation, analysis and simulation (validation and verification) of driveshaft torsion vibration. The vibration measurement validation verification has been carried out on vehicle (4x2) having four cylinder engine 85kw@2800 rpm and six speed manual transmission for getting correlation between values of theoretical calculations and CAE results.This analysis has been done in order to achieve vehicle good performance in terms of driving comfort as well as smooth functionality with zero vibration frequency at high speed. The propeller shaft series selection and refinement has been done using theoretical iteration with operating angle of prop shaft which exits in between the universal joint planes. A frequency of vibration analysis has evaluated at different propeller shaft layout and duty cycle.The vibration performance predictions for vehicles with these design is rigorously done. The required parameters are recorded, compared in tabulated form shown in graphical way. The lowest operating angle of drive shaft design leads to optimize the vibration and provide better overall vehicle performance at different speed. An effective selection of drive shaft layout has been done…
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Finite Element Simulation and Validation of Planetary Gear System

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Sonu Paroche, Himanshu Deshmukh, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Alok Muley
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The planetary gear system is a critical component in speed reduction of gear system. It consists of a ring gear, set of planetary gears, a sun gear and a carrier. It is mainly used in high speed reduction transmission. More speed variation can be achieved using this system with same number of gears. This speed reduction is based on the number of teeth in each gear. The size of new system is compact. A theoretical calculation is performed at concept level to get the desired reduction of speed. Then the planetary gear system is simulated using ANSYS software for new development transmission system. The final validation is done with the testing of physical parts. This concept is implemented in 9speed transmission system. Similar concept is in development for the hub reduction with planetary gears. The maximum 3.67 reduction is achieved with planetary system. The stresses in each pin is calculated using FEA.
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Optimization of Wheel Hub Gasket and Cap Design to Prevent Grease Contamination and Bearing Failures

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Prasad S. Warwandkar, Ashutosh Dubey, Sonu Paroche
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
Wheel end bearing is one of the critical components of the vehicle as it directly faces the road loads for harsh operating environment. Bearing being a precisely manufactured component and rotating at high speed, utmost care is required while assembling as well as during operation. In operating condition wheel end is directly exposed to outside environment making it prone to entry of contamination. This contamination if not prevented from entering into wheel end through proper sealing it would cause lubricant contamination and consequently bearing failure.Bearing replacement and overall wheel end service is time consuming activity reducing the turn out time of the vehicle. In wheel ends, one side is sealed with the help of seal while the other side is protected by cap and gasket. This cap-gasket interface is very critical from sealing perspective and utmost importance needs to be taken while designing the same.This paper focuses on the various aspects of design to be considered while designing gasket and caps for the sealing of wheel hubs. Additionally CAE analysis methodology is adopted to virtually…
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Design and Optimization of Web Fillets for Commercial Vehicle Crankshaft for Improving SCF and Theoretically Correlated

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sayak Mukherjee, Sonu Paroche, Diwakar Ayyar, Umashanker Gupta
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Crankshaft is one of the critical components of an engine (5C: cylinder head, connecting rod, crankshaft, camshaft and cylinder block). It is subjected to repetitive and dynamic loads due to cyclic operation of an engine and inertia forces. Due to uneven mass distribution, failure zones occur near fillets and holes in journal locations during operation of the engine. Hence, this topic was chosen because of increasing interest in higher payloads, lower weight, higher efficiency and shorter load cycles in crankshaft equipment.Calculation of Crankshaft strength consists initially in determining the nominal alternating bending and nominal alternating torsional stresses, which multiplied by the appropriate SCF (Stress Concentration Factor), result in an equivalent alternating stress. This equivalent alternating stress is then compared with the fatigue strength of the selected crankshaft material. This comparison will show whether or not the crankshaft concerned is dimensioned adequately. Hence, SCF is main focus point. The present study emphasizes on a CAE based approach for prediction of SCF for crankshaft web fillets. Using FE Solver (Optistruct), the dimensions and shape of the web…
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Fatigue Analysis and Validation of Fracture Split Connecting Rod for Value Engineering Using 1D and 3D Simulation Tools

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sonu Paroche, Sayak Mukherjee, Diwakar Ayyar, Umashanker Gupta
Published 2016-03-27 by SAE International in United States
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs, hence the need for upgrading the existing/proven integral connecting rod to fracture split connecting rod. This technique provides gains as weight reduction and consequently reducing noise and vibration due to the decrease of the oscillating mass from the system. Using the proposed fracture split connecting rod, it is estimated that cost savings of up to 10%, reduction in weight and better fatigue performance (25% - 30%) can be achieved. For this, we have used simulation tools to reduce number of physical tests and thereby achieving considerable reduction in design and development time and cost.High carbon alloy steel used for manufacturing fracture split connecting rod and it doesn’t require additional heat treatment after hot forging. Fracture split connecting rod is made of single forged blank and later splitted into two parts (Cap & Shank) unlike conventional type of connecting rods, in which shank and cap are separately forged and machined. In fracture split connecting…
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Static and Dynamic Study of 4-Cylinder Diesel Engine Crankshaft using FEM and Analytical Approaches

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sonu Paroche, Sayak Mukherjee, Umashanker Gupta
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Crankshaft is one of the critical components of an engine (5C: cylinder head, connecting rod, crankshaft, camshaft and cylinder block). It is subjected to repetitive and dynamic loads due to cyclic operation of an engine, inertia forces due to uneven mass distribution with failure zones as fillets and holes in journal locations. Fatigue is most common cause in failure of the crankshaft. Its failure will cause serious damage to the engine so its reliability verification must be performed. The load is applied as per the firing order of the cylinder for 2 revolutions of crankshaft, to cover firing condition of each cylinder. Loads with respect to crank angle or time are applied at respective locations and results are taken on 360 steps for 2 complete revolutions of crank.The topic was chosen because of increasing interest in higher payloads, lower weight, higher efficiency and shorter load cycles in crankshaft equipment. The present study emphasizes on a CAE based approach for development of crankshaft right from the conceptualization phase. The analysis includes determination of free vibration shapes…
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