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Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

U.S. Army TARDEC-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State University-N. A. Henein, A. Kastury, K. Natti
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12.Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC. The first is to advance LPPC, while keeping the other parameters constant. This was found to improve…
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Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

US Army TARDEC-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State University-N. A. Henein, A. Bhattacharyya, J. Schipper, A. Kastury
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rates were varied to cover the engine operation from the conventional to the low temperature combustion regime, up to the misfiring point. The reduction in NOx and the penalty in BSU, HC, CO and indicated specific fuel…
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Small-Bore HSDI Diesel Engine in the Conventional and LTC Combustion Regimes

TARDEC-W. Bryzik
Wayne State Univ.-N. A. Henein, A. Bhattacharyya, J. Schipper
Published 2005-09-11 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
An experimental investigation was conducted on a small-bore, high-speed diesel engine to study the effect of different operating parameters on combustion and engine-out emissions in the conventional and low temperature regimes. For the conventional diesel combustion, the spray behavior is analyzed and a differentiation is made between the conditions in the small-bore and the larger bore quiescent chamber engines. The effects of the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing and swirl ratio (SR) on combustion and engine-out emission are investigated. The trade-off between NOx and smoke, measured in Bosch smoke unit, (BSU), is investigated with a special attention to the low temperature combustion regime, (LTC). The results showed that the LTC regime could be reached at fairly high EGR rates under all the injection pressures investigated in this work. The margin for the variation in EGR was limited just before the misfiring EGR. A small increase in EGR to the firing limit resulted in a drop in both the NOx and BSU, with a noticeable penalty in fuel economy, and an increase in…
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Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in the Injection Pressure in a Common Rail Diesel Injection System on Engine Performance

U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State University-L. Zhong, I. P. Singh, J. Han, Ming-Chia Lai, N. A. Henein
Published 2003-03-03 by SAE International in United States
The performance of the Common Rail diesel injection system (CRS) is investigated experimentally in a single cylinder engine and a test rig to determine the cycle-to-cycle variation in the injection pressure and its effects on the needle opening and rate of fuel delivery. The engine used is a single cylinder, simulated-turbocharged diesel engine. Data for the different injection and performance parameters are collected under steady state conditions for 35 consecutive cycles. Furthermore, a mathematical model has been developed to calculate the instantaneous fuel delivery rate at various injection pressures. The experimental results supported with the model computations indicated the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations in the fuel injection pressure and needle lift. The variations in the peak-cylinder gas pressure, rate of heat release, cylinder gas temperature and IMEP are correlated with the variation in the injection rate. The effect of these variations on NOx emission and soot are also discussed in this paper.
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New Integrated “O.P.E.R.A.S.” Strategies for Low Emissions in HSDI Diesel Engines

US ARMY TARDEC-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State University-N. A. Henein, I.P. Singh, L. Zhong, Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2003-03-03 by SAE International in United States
Integrated control strategies for the O.P.E.R.A.S. (Optimization of injection Pressure, EGR ratio, injection Retard or Advance and Swirl ratio) are demonstrated. The strategies are based on an investigation of combustion and emissions in a small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system and is tested under simulated turbocharged engine conditions at two loads and speeds that represent two key operating points in a medium size HEV vehicle. A new phenomenological model is developed for the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber and the fractions that are injected prior to the development of the flame, injected in the flame or deposited on the walls. The investigation covered the effect of the different operating parameters on the fuel distribution, combustion and engine-out emissions. Illustrations of integrated strategies for O.P.E.R.A.S., that take into consideration the needs of the after-treatment devices, are given.
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Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System under Pilot and Post Injection Modes

Wayne State University-N. A. Henein, Ming-Chia Lai, I. P. Singh, L. Zhong, J. Han
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of a common rail fuel injection system using a flow rate test rig and a single cylinder research diesel engine. Experiments covered speeds and loads typical to engine conditions under Hybrid Electric Vehicle operation. Different injection modes were investigated including main injection, main-post injection and pilot-main injection. The analysis indicated that the common rail fuel pressure affects all the injection parameters including the start of fuel delivery, its duration and amount under all modes of injection. Also, the pressure waves produced in the system have an impact on the operation of the nozzle-needle and fuel delivery particularly in the main-post injection mode.
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Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison-K. J. Richards, M. N. Subramaniam, Rolf D. Reitz
Sandia National Laboratories-Paul C. Miles
Published 2001-03-05 by SAE International in United States
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
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White Smoke Emissions Under Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

U.S. Army Tank Automotive RDE Center-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State Univ.-M. K. Yassine, M. K. Tagomori, N. A. Henein
Published 1996-02-01 by SAE International in United States
More stringent regulations have been enforced over the past few years on diesel exhaust emissions. White smoke emission, a characteristic of diesel engines during cold starting, needs to be controlled in order to meet these regulations. This study investigates the sources and constituents of white smoke. The effects of fuel properties, design and operating parameters on the formation and emissions of white smoke are discussed. A new technique is developed to measure the real time gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) as well as the solid and liquid particulates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine in a cold room. The gaseous HC emissions are measured using a high frequency response flame ionization detector. The liquid and solid particulates are collected on a paper filter placed upstream of the sampling line of the FID and their masses are determined. A comparative study is made between white smoke in its three forms for diesel fuel (DF2) and jet fuel (JP8). The fuel accumulated in the engine during cranking plays a major role in the emissions…
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Instantaneous Frictional Torque Components in a Diesel Engine

U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command Warren, MI-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State University Detroit, MI-N. A. Henein, Apostolos Fragoulis
Published 1989-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The instantaneous frictional torque (IFT) of many components of a single cylinder diesel engine was determined by considering the forces acting on each component and the resulting change in the angular velocity. The IFT for the basic system, consisting of the crankshaft with the flywheel and oil pump, was first determined. The effect of adding each of the following to the basic system was determined: balancer shaft, cam shaft, piston with different ring combinations, inlet valve, exhaust valve and fuel injection pump. All the tests were conducted without gas pressure in the cylinder in a coast down mode. The results indicated the contribution of each component in the total frictional torque and its mode of lubrication. The energy absorbed by the valve springs and released back to the system was clearly Identified. The effect of speed on IFT and energy lost in friction was determined.
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Effect of Physical Properties and Composition on Fuels on Autoignition and Cetane Rating

Kyodo Oil Technical Research Center Co., Ltd., Japan-Yukio Akasaka
Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI-N. A. Henein
Published 1987-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines have to face the prospect of running on heavy and/or low cetane fuels in the future because of the expected changes in base stock and demand. The effect of physical properties and composition of fuels on the ignition delay and cetane rating is examined. The experiments were conducted on fuels having a very wide range of physical properties and C.N., in a CFR engine. The ignition delay is measured under the standard ASTM D-613 procedure and under varying needle opening pressures, and coolant temperatures. The ignition delay of some fuels is found to be dependent on the physical properties and composition of the fuels in addition to the cetane number. The cetane rating according to ASTM-D613 procedure is found to take place under hot engine conditions with a single stage ignition process. At lower compression ratios, a two stage ignition was observed. A correlation between cetane number and fuel composition was derived and found to be in agreement with the experimental results.
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