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Enomoto, Hiroshi
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Effect of Fuel Composition in Bio-syngas on NOx in Emission with SI-ICE

Kanazawa Univ. (2019)-Shota Iwai, Kazushi Fukadu, Hiroshi Enomoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0604
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, effective methods of utilizing power generation using biomass have been studied a biomass power generation with an internal combustion engines. It is able to be used even on small scale. In addition, by using the ICE, it is possible to make the efficiency relatively high. The compact downdraft type gasifier was manufactured. It generates bio-syngas from biomass. A small spark ignition ICE (SI-ICE) was drove using bio-syngas as fuel. NO is included in the emission of the ICE. Due to NO is said that it pollute the atmosphere and destroy the ozone layer, it must be reduced. Many researcher study NO in emission with synthetic gas of CH4 mixed with H2. Their result is NO increased as H2 ratio increased. However, experiments with actual syngas is few. And, combustible gases in bio-syngas produced by our equipment are CO, H2 and CH4. Previous studies with synthetic gas of mixed CO, H2 and CH4 is few. Therefore, experiments are performed with actual syngas. Also, H2 and city gas (13 A) is added to syngas…
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Influence of Pressure Conditions in Supercritical Atmosphere on Flame Diameter of Diesel Oil and Hexadecane Droplet

College of Science & Technology, Kanazawa Univ.-Takuya Mino, Hiroshi Enomoto, Noboru Hieda, Yoshikazu Teraoka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0035
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline, diesel oil, and kerosene are widely used as a fuel of various transportation apparatus and generating electricity apparatuses including the automobiles. The spray combustion has been widely used for internal combustion engine to use the fuel efficiently. But some parts of the phenomenon are not elucidated because this combustion method is complicated phenomenon. To elucidate this phenomenon, there are many ways of analyzing droplet. For example, observing a single droplet which suspended by a catenary or under the microgravity. However, those methods are not enough simulation of a real droplet in the internal combustion engine. In this study, we developed an apparatus which could inject a freedom droplet of diameter about 30µm. It is considered that the droplet is in a real internal combustion engine. And the apparatus was installed in a container which could realize elevated temperature and pressure. And a droplet was injected under supercritical condition that simulated the condition in the internal combustion engine and combustion behavior was observed. We experimented with Diesel oil and hexadecane…
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Effect of Heat Flux on End of Diesel and Kerosene Droplet Evaporation in High Temperature Condition

Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Natural Science and-Yoshihide Ota, Hiroshi Enomoto, Jun Higashihara, Masahiro Sasao, Noboru Hieda, Yoshikazu Teraoka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0030
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In internal combustion engine, it is necessary to grasp droplet evaporation for using liquid fuel efficiency and improving exhaust gas composition. However, it has not known completely yet. In this study, fuel droplet of approximately 20μm diameter that is assumed to be in combustion chamber is injected by experimental apparatus. After that, droplet goes to butane flame. We observed by high-speed camera, and experimentally considered the effects of heat flux on the fuel droplet evaporation and breakup phenomenon. For the sample fuel, we use kerosene and diesel oil. It is important for understanding evaporation condition to know temperature around droplet in butane flame. Thus, flame temperature is measured by sheathed thermocouple. Heat flux is changed by initial velocity. From experiment, we found some result. Time that from injector tube to location of breakup of the droplet is short by increasing heat flux. In terms of breakup phenomenon, it is found that kerosene is broken up in relatively small heat flux condition. The breakup diameter is not dependent on heat flux. Evaporation rate is increased linearly…
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Effect of Xylene Ratio on the Secondary Atomization with UV Laser

College of Science & Technology, Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Naoki Iwafune, Masaya Morii, Ryo Honda, Noboru Hieda, Yoshikazu Teraoka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2015-32-0796
Published 2015-11-17 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In our study, phenomena is observed that 30µm droplet become breakup by UV laser irradiation. This phenomena change by composition of droplet. Then we focused on difference of absorbance, hexadecane and o-xylene are used as fuel. The former do not absorb UV enough and the latter do absorb UV enough. And authors examined the relation mixing ratio and breakup phenomena using blended fuel which consist of hexadecane and o-xylene. With regard to the UV laser we used, wavelength is 266nm, flash of time is 10nsec and laser intensity is 15mJ. CCD camera, strobe light with 180nsec flash time and lens of ten magnification were used for observation. As a result, we obtained the following; 1) A state of breakup phenomena depend on concentration of o-xylene. 2) The absorbance is not related with a state of breakup phenomena.
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Effect of Ignition Timing on Small SI Engine Torque at WOT Condition with Syngas from Wood Biomass Gasifier

College of Science & Technology, Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Kazuyuki Teraoka, Noboru Hieda, Masahiro Sasao, Yusuke Odani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2015-32-0795
Published 2015-11-17 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Recently, alternative power generation that does not use the oil has attracted attention. There is a power generation using a biomass in one of them. However, biomass power plants is fewer in Japan. Below are two reasons why biomass power plants is few. Firstly, biomass resources are widely and thinly. So, biomass resources is a high transportation cost. Secondly, Efficiency of small biomass plant is low. Therefore, we're working with high-efficiency small biomass gasifier to the development of the power generation method. First, we generated the gas biomass by pyrolysis. Next, SI-ICE has examined whether it can be operated continuously when produced gas was thrown into the SI-ICE. In addition, when the produced gas was charged, changing the ignition timing was examined whether affect much to SI-ICE. The results of the experiment, continued operation of the SI-ICE was possible. Ignition timing was advanced, so that SI-ICE was increased efficiency and power. However, minimum advance for best torque is not found was impossible. Also, to discuss combustion in cylinder was impossible. Combustion in the cylinder is…
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Effects of EGR on Knock-Level of Small Spark Ignition Engine with Gasoline-Base Kerosene-Mixed Fuel

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Hirotaka Nozue, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In emergency, it is not easy to get enough fuel for generator and the usage of kerosene with small spark ignition engine for normal gasoline was investigated. As too much kerosene will cause knock, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) system was used to reduce the knock strength. The displacement was 290cc and the compression ratio was 8.4. The knock strength was evaluated with a highpass-filtered strain sensor and 0.6V was measured at MBT (Minimum advance for Best Torque) with normal gasoline, 1800rpm, 10Nm. The engine speed was almost 1800±100rpm and the torque was almost 10±0.1Nm. As a result, the EGR system could reduce the knock strength in any kerosene mixture fuel with the control of the ignition timing.
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Small Kerosene Droplet Evaporation Near Butane Diffusion Flame

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Shogo Kunioka, Lukas Kano Mangalla, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
An experimental study has been conducted at small kerosene droplet behavior near well-defined butane diffusion flame for the critical need on high efficient and cleaner energy technology. High temperature of background gas was generated using butane flame. Microflame from butane can reach the maximum temperature around 1200K at tip of outer glass. Single droplet of kerosene was injected by a small injector tube (30 μm-diameter) in to hot environment. Droplet of kerosene was released by attachment of piezo actuator on wall injector. Once the droplet is exposed to the hot atmosphere of micro flame, the temporal regression of the droplet surface was recorded. Droplet diameter was observed by CCD camera with strobe light flash at 180ns. The images captured in this experiment were analyzed by post-processing software to determine the vaporization of droplet. Temperature of background gas was measured by K-type thermocouple and speed of droplet released from injector was also measured to investigate the effect of relative velocity between droplet and background gas. The result shows that the linear changing point of droplet diameter…
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Behavior of Small Fuel Droplet near Butane Diffusion Flame

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Shogo Kunioka, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this paper, droplet behavior near diffusion flame was observed. Single droplet was created by thin glass tube and piezo device which pushes the side of glass tube. Dispersions of droplets location near diffusive flame were compared to droplets with no flame condition. CCD camera, strobe light with 180nsec flash time and lens of ten magnification were used for observation. Droplet pictures were taken with resolution of 0.46um/pix. As a result, droplets near diffusive flame tend to increase its dispersion of location as approaching tip of the flame. Stefan flow caused by evaporation and turbulence outer flow can be thought as causes.
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Effects of Spark Ignition Timing on Exhaust Gas Component and Temperature with Wood Biomass Gasifier

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Hirotaka Nozue, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Small wood biomass gasifier was developed and co-generation system supplying electric power and heat with small spark ignition internal combustion engine (SI-ICE) was investigated. The balance of electric power and heat flux will be controlled with ignition timing and the exhaust gas components were discussed. The wood biomass gasifier (downdraft type) had 105mm in inner diameter and 1000mm in length and the reaction zone temperature was 900deg-C at 68NL/min in intake air flow. The SI-ICE had 290cc in displacement and 8.4 in compression ratio and was driven at 1500rpm. The ignition angle was changed from 30deg-BTDC to 25deg-BTDC with almost same exhaust gas components. The exhaust gas temperature was from 520deg-C to 555deg-C.
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Observation of Kerosene Droplet Evaporation under High Pressure and High Temperature Environment

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Shunsuke Sawasaki, Kosuke Nishioka, Lukas Kano Mangalla
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this study, the background gas of the droplet vaporization was concerned and simulated numerically using ANSYS fluent code. The new type, engine-like, condition of high pressure chamber and high temperature environment was considered to conduct experiment on kerosene droplet evaporation. 2D geometry of domain simulation was discretized in the very fine quadrilateral meshes. The numerical approach was solved using implicit scheme of compressible gas solver (density based). Temperature dependent properties of air are expressed for gas material properties. As the study concerning on high pressure condition the equation state of Peng-Robinson was expressed in simulation. Governing equations of mass, momentum and energy were solved by the second order upwind for flow, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate. Standard k-ε model was used to solve turbulence flow in the spatial discretization. The effects of the non-ideal gas phase behavior were found to be important for prediction background gas of droplet vaporization especially in high pressure environment. It can be concluded that we can predict the environment of high temperature and high pressure condition, however…
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