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Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

General Motors Company-Russ Durrett
Univ. of Wisconsin Madison-Paul Loeper, Youngchul Ra, Cory Adams, David E. Foster, Jaal Ghandhi, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.With constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions, engine operation sensitivity due to changes in inlet temperature between 50-90C was first examined for fixed fueling rates. This experiment was then repeated at different inlet pressures and engine speeds. Finally, constant load experiments were performed in which perturbations in injection strategies (timing, duration, and pressure) were executed to assess overall system sensitivity.…
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Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection

SAE International Journal of Engines

General Motors Company-Russ Durrett
University of Wisconsin-Madison-Youngchul Ra, Paul Loeper, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger, David E. Foster, Rolf D. Reitz
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1131
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.With constraints on a minimum allowable combustion efficiency, maximum allowable noise level (pressure rise rate) and maximum allowable NOx and soot emissions, engine operation ranges were identified as functions of injection timings and the fuel split ratio (i.e., fraction of total fuel injected in each pulse) with triple-pulse…
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Hydraulic Behavior and Spray Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System Using Gasoline Fuel

GM R&D Center-Russ Durrett, Alejandro Plazas Torres
Universidad Politecnica de Valencia-Raul Payri, Antonio Garcia, Vicent Domenech
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Regulations on emissions from diesel engines are becoming more stringent worldwide. Hence there is a great deal of interest in developing engine combustion systems that offer the fuel efficiency of a diesel engine, but with low smoke and NOx emissions. Thus, premixed compression ignition combustion is an interesting way to achieve a clean and efficient engine. However, using a high reactivity fuel such as diesel fuel leads to a complex and expensive engine design. A proven way to overcome this drawback is to actively control the reactivity of the fuel using low cetane fuels such as gasoline. This strategy has been explored with single and multiple cylinder engines. However no detailed and well conducted studies of the injection process were found related to the effects of gasoline use in a standard commercial compression ignition diesel engine injection system.This paper focuses on an experimental study which compared the effects of diesel fuel and gasoline on injection rate, spray momentum, and mixing behavior under non-evaporative conditions. A parametric study has been performed varying injection pressure, injector energizing…
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An Investigation on Mixing and Auto-ignition using Diesel and Gasoline in a Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine Operating in PCCI Combustion Conditions

SAE International Journal of Engines

GM R&D Center-Russ Durrett
Universidad Politecnica de Valencia-Jesus Benajes, Ricardo Novella, Antonio Garcia, Vicent Domenech
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-37-0008
Published 2011-06-09 by SAE International in United States
Most of the new Diesel combustion concepts are mainly based on reducing local combustion temperatures and enhancing the fuel/air mixing with the aim of simultaneously reducing soot and NOx emissions. In this framework, Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) has revealed as one of the best options to combine both low emissions and good combustion controllability.During last years, PCCI strategy has been widely explored using high EGR levels and different early or late injection timings to extend the ignition delay. Recently, the use of lower cetane fuels is under investigation. Despite the great quantity of research work performed, there are still some aspects related to PCCI combustion that are not completely well known.In this paper an experimental and numerical study is carried out focused on understanding the mixing and auto-ignition processes in PCCI combustion conditions using Diesel and Gasoline fuels.For this purpose, a parametrical study has been performed varying EGR, injection timing, and fuel type in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engine. A detailed analysis in terms of air/fuel mixing process has been also…
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Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

SAE International Journal of Engines

General Motors LLC-Russ Durrett, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Alejandro Plazas, Richard Peterson, Patrick Szymkowicz
Univ. of Wisconsin-Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Michael Andrie
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1182
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections. Parametric variation of the operation ranges was also investigated with respect to initial gas temperature, boost pressure and injection pressure. Following the modeling, experiments were performed under the conditions suggested by the numerical results in order to confirm the feasibility of GDICI operation at full load, as…
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