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A Process for an Efficient Heat Release Prediction at Multiple Engine Speeds and Valve Timings in the Early Stage of Gasoline Engine Development

University of Brighton-Robert Morgan, David Mason, Morgan Heikal
LOGE AB-Andrea Matrisciano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0085
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The increasing need for cleaner and more efficient combustion systems has promoted a paradigm shift in the automotive industry. Virtual hardware and engine calibration screening at the early development stage, has become the most effective way to reduce the time necessary to bring new products to market. Virtual engine development processes need to provide realistic engine combustion rate responses for the entire engine map and for different engine calibrations. Quasi Dimensional (Q-D) combustion models have increasingly been used to predict engine performance at multiple operating conditions. The physics-based Q-D turbulence models necessary to correctly model the engine combustion rate within the Q-D combustion model framework are a computationally efficient means of capturing the effect of port and combustion chamber geometry on performance. A rigorous method of correlating the effect of air motion on combustion parameters such as heat release is required to enable novel geometric architectures to be assessed to deliver future improvements in engine performance.A previously assessed process using a combination of a 0-D combustion Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM), provided by LOGESoft, a 1-D…
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Predictive CFD Auto-Tuning Approach for In-Cylinder Simulations of Two Small-Bore LDD Engines

University of Brighton-Konstantina Vogiatzaki, Robert Morgan
University of Brighton, Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Daniel Nsikane
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0033
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Tightening emission regulations and accelerating production cycles force engine developers to shift their attention towards virtual engineering tools. When simulating in-cylinder processes in commercial LDD DI engine development, the trade-off between run time and accuracy is typically tipped towards the former. High-fidelity simulation approaches which require little tuning would be desirable but require excessive computing resources. For this reason, industry still favors low-fidelity simulation approaches and bridges remaining uncertainties with prototyping and testing. The problem with low-fidelity simulations is that simplifications in the form of sub models introduce multi variable tuning parameter dependencies which, if not understood, impair the predictive nature of CFD simulations.In previous work, the authors have successfully developed a boundary condition dependent input parameter table. This parameter table showed outstanding results for lab-scale experiments for over 40 varying operating conditions. The objective in this paper is first to identify the necessary considerations to adjust for the inherent differences between lab-scale and real engine conditions and then implement this parameter table into industry relevant conditions. With this approach the appropriate simulation setup for…
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Implementation of a 0-D/1-D/3-D Process for the Heat Release Prediction of a Gasoline Engine in the Early Development Stage

University of Brighton-Robert Morgan, David Mason, Morgan Heikal
University of Brighton / Ricardo UK Ltd.-Christian Rota
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The automotive market’s need for ever cleaner and more efficient powertrains, delivered to market in the shortest possible time, has prompted a revolution in digital engineering. Virtual hardware screening and engine calibration, before hardware is available is a highly time and cost-effective way of reducing development and validation testing and shortening the time to bring product to market. Model-based development workflows, to be predictive, need to offer realistic combustion rate responses to different engine characteristics such as port and fuel injector geometry. The current approach relies on a combination of empirical, phenomenological and experienced derived tools with poor accuracy outside the range of experimental data used to validate the tool chain, therefore making the exploration of unconventional solutions challenging. An alternative method that is less data and user experience dependent, is therefore needed to enable radical improvements in performance to be delivered without compromising the time to market.In this work, a pragmatic engine development process using a combination of a 0-D combustion Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) provided by LOGESoft and non-combusting ‘cold’ CFD is used.…
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Visual Analyses of End of Injection Liquid Structures and the Behaviour of Nozzle Surface-Bound Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

University of Brighton-Dan Sykes, Guillaume de Sercey, Cyril Crua
BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
For efficiency, the majority of modern diesel engines implement multiple injection strategies, increasing the frequency of transient injection phases and thus, end of injection (EOI) events. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have identified several EOI phenomena pertinent to nozzle surface wetting as a precursor for deposit formation and a potential contributor towards pollutant emissions. To investigate the underlying processes, highspeed optical measurements at the microscopic scale were performed inside a motored diesel engine under low load/idling conditions. Visualisation of the injector nozzle surface and near nozzle region permitted an indepth analysis of the post-injection phenomena and the behaviour of fuel films on the nozzle surface when the engine is not fired. Inspection of the high-speed video data enabled an interpretation of the fluid dynamics leading to surface wetting, elucidating the mechanisms of deposition and spreading. As the needle re-seated, the abrupt pressure drop inhibited atomisation. Large, slow moving, liquid structures were released into the cylinder with the capability of impinging on nearby surfaces, creating localised fuel rich regions, or escaping through the exhaust and contributing…
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Simulation and Measurement of Transient Fluid Phenomena within Diesel Injection

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

University of Brighton-Jack Turner, Dan Sykes, Viacheslav Stetsyuk, Guillaume de Sercey, Cyril Crua
BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0066
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Rail pressures of modern diesel fuel injection systems have increased significantly over recent years, greatly improving atomisation of the main fuel injection event and air utilisation of the combustion process. Continued improvement in controlling the process of introducing fuel into the cylinder has led to focussing on fluid phenomena related to transient response. High-speed microscopy has been employed to visualise the detailed fluid dynamics around the near nozzle region of an automotive diesel fuel injector, during the opening, closing and post injection events. Complementary computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been undertaken to elucidate the interaction of the liquid and gas phases during these highly transient events, including an assessment of close-coupled injections.Microscopic imaging shows the development of a plug flow in the initial stages of injection, with rapid transition into a primary breakup regime, transitioning to a finely atomised spray and subsequent vaporisation of the fuel. During closuring of the injector the spray collapses, with evidence of swirling breakup structures together with unstable ligaments of fuel breaking into large slow-moving droplets. This leads to…
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The Recuperated Split Cycle - Experimental Combustion Data from a Single Cylinder Test Rig

SAE International Journal of Engines

University of Brighton-Robert E. Morgan, Guangyu dong, Morgan Heikal, Christopher lenartowicz
Ricardo UK Ltd-Andrew Atkins
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-24-0169
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The conventional Diesel cycles engine is now approaching the practical limits of efficiency. The recuperated split cycle engine is an alternative cycle with the potential to achieve higher efficiencies than could be achieved using a conventional engine cycle. In a split cycle engine, the compression and combustion strokes are performed in separate chambers. This enables direct cooling of the compression cylinder reducing compression work, intra cycle heat recovery and low heat rejection expansion. Previously reported analysis has shown that brake efficiencies approaching 60% are attainable, representing a 33% improvement over current advanced heavy duty diesel engine. However, the achievement of complete, stable, compression ignited combustion has remained elusive to date. The challenge is to induct hot high pressure charge air close to top dead centre into the combustion cylinder and then inject and burn the fuel before the piston has travelled significantly down the expansion stroke. In this paper, we report results from a single cylinder split cycle combustion research engine. Stable, rapid combustion was achieved at 800 rpm and 1200 rpm at the retarded…
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Effect of Hydrogen Fumigation in a Dual Fueled Heavy Duty Engine

University of Brighton-Robert Morgan, Christopher Lenartowicz, Morgan Heikal
Ricardo UK Ltd-Penny Atkins, Andrew Atkins
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Concerns over the impact of road transport emissions on the climate have led to increased focus on how CO2 emissions could be reduced from the sector. This is of particular concern in the commercial vehicle sector, where engine downsizing and electrification have limited benefit due to the vehicle duty cycle. In this paper, we present results from an experimental program to investigate the impact of dual fueling a heavy duty engine on hydrogen and diesel. Hydrogen is potentially a zero carbon fuel, if manufactured from renewable energy but could also be manufactured on the vehicle through steam reformation of part of the liquid fuel. This opens a novel pathway for the recovery of waste heat from the exhaust system through the endothermic steam reformation process, improving the overall system efficiency. For these concepts to be viable, it is essential the dual fueled combustion system is both thermally efficient, and does not increase toxic emissions such as NOx. The test program reported studied the impact of hydrogen injection into the engine intake system with and without…
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An Assessment of the Bottoming Cycle Operating Conditions for a High EGR Rate Engine at Euro VI NOx Emissions

SAE International Journal of Engines

University of Brighton-Angad Panesar, Robert Morgan, Nicolas Miché, Morgan Heikal
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-24-0089
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the application of a Bottoming Cycle (BC) applied to a 10-litre (L) heavy duty Diesel engine for potential improvements in fuel efficiency. With the main thermodynamic irreversibility in the BC due to the temperature difference between the heat source and the working fluid, a proper selection of the working fluid and its operating condition for a given waste heat is the key in achieving high overall conversion efficiency. The paper reviews a fluid selection methodology based on thermodynamic/thermo-physical and environmental/safety properties. Results are presented using seven pure, dry, isentropic and wet working fluids (synthetic, organic and inorganic) operating with expansion starting from the saturated vapour, superheated vapour, supercritical phase, saturated liquid, and two-phase.Efficiency improvements by recovering Charge Air Coolers (CAC) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler heat on two engine platforms were calculated. The first platform operating at Euro 6 engine out NOx emissions levels and the second platform operating with Euro 5 engine out NOx emissions coupled with a 80% efficient selective catalytic reduction system. Performance and heat rejection data for…
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High-Speed Microscopic Imaging of the Initial Stage of Diesel Spray Formation and Primary Breakup

University of Brighton-Cyril Crua, Tenzin Shoba, Morgan Heikal
BP Global Fuels Technology-Martin Gold, Cassandra Higham
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The formation and breakup of diesel sprays was investigated experimentally on a common rail diesel injector using a long range microscope. The objectives were to further the fundamental understanding of the processes involved in the initial stage of diesel spray formation.Tests were conducted at atmospheric conditions and on a rapid compression machine with motored in-cylinder peak pressures up to 8 MPa, and injection pressures up to 160 MPa. The light source and long range imaging optics were optimized to produce blur-free shadowgraphic images of sprays with a resolution of 0.6 μm per pixel, and a viewing region of 768x614 μm. Such fine spatial and temporal resolutions allowed the observation of previously unreported shearing instabilities and stagnation point on the tip of diesel jets. The tip of the fuel jet was seen to take the shape of an oblate spheroidal cap immediately after leaving the nozzle, due to the combination of transverse expansion of the jet and the physical properties of the fuel. The spheroidal cap was found to consist of residual fuel trapped in the…
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The Mixture Response of a Stratified Charge Gasoline Engine with Independent, Twin, Port-Fuel Injector Control

University of Brighton-T.P. Lourenco Cardosa
Univ of Brighton-M. R. Heikal
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study of the mixture response performance of novel, port-fuel injection strategies upon combustion stability in a gasoline engine was undertaken at low engine load and speed conditions in the range of 1.0 bar to 1.8 bar GIMEP and 1000 rpm to 1800 rpm. The aim was to improve the thermal efficiency of the engine, by extending the lean limit of combustion stability, through promotion of stable charge stratification. The investigation was carried out using a modified 4-valve single-cylinder head, derived from a 4-cylinder, pent-roof, production, gasoline engine. The cylinder head was modified by dividing the intake tract into two, separate and isolated passages; each incorporating a production fuel injector. The fuel injection timing and duration were controlled independently for each injector. The performance effects of a single or multiple fuel injection event on a single-sided injector were compared to simultaneous and phased fuel injection for the pair of injectors, with both open valve or closed valve fuel injection timings. A model of the engine, implemented in the Ricardo WAVE software and refined using…
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