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eABS: Regenerative Anti-Lock Braking for Electric Motorcycles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University at Buffalo-John Robinson, Tarunraj Singh
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2064
Published 2013-09-30 by SAE International in United States
Linked front and rear braking systems are difficult to implement properly on motorcycles due to the large changes in wheel loading under braking. At the braking limit, there is little to no load on the rear wheel and any brake torque could lock it, making the vehicle laterally unstable. Therefore, most motorcycles have independent controls for the front and rear brakes, requiring the rider to balance the brake force distribution. Electric motorcycles have the ability to utilize the drive motor to apply braking torque at the rear wheel. In this paper a control technique has been developed to link rear wheel braking torque to the front brake lever without risking rear tire lock. Thereby, it is also possible to recapture the energy from rear wheel braking. The control strategy has been tested on a transient pitch model, with rotating wheels and tire model data. It has been found that the control strategy provides significant reduction of stopping time and distance when compared to only using the front brake, while maintaining lateral stability of the motorcycle…
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Constructing Three-Dimensional Models of Individuals and their Wheeled Mobility Devices from Landmark Data

University at Buffalo-Clive R. D'Souza, David J. Feathers, Victor L. Paquet
Published 2007-06-12 by SAE International in United States
An anthropometric data collection effort has yielded electromechanical data of three-dimensional landmark coordinates for approximately 300 wheeled mobility device users and their wheelchairs. The development and modeling of static digital models from individual landmark coordinate datasets is described. These models provide a faithful representation of the static postural and spatial characteristics of the individual-mobility device (IMD) system. This paper highlights a few key issues in the development of the static digital models for the wheeled mobility device user group.
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Inflation Pressure Effects in the Nondimensional Tire Model

University at Buffalo-Edward M. Kasprzak, Kemper E. Lewis
Milliken Research Associates, Inc.-Douglas L. Milliken
Published 2006-12-05 by SAE International in United States
Inflation pressure affects every aspect of tire performance. Most tire models, including the Radt/Milliken Nondimensional Tire Model, are restricted to modeling a single inflation pressure at a time. This is a reasonable limitation, in that the Nondimensional model forms an input/output relationship between tire operating conditions and force & moment outputs. Traditional operating conditions are normal load, slip angle, inclination angle, slip ratio and road surface friction coefficient.Tire pressure is more like a tire parameter than a tire operating condition. Since the Nondimensional Tire Model is semi-empirical it does not specifically deal with tire parameters like sidewall height or tread compound. Still, tire pressure is the easiest tire parameter to change, and as the air temperature within the tire varies during use so does the inflation pressure. Thus, it is desirable to incorporate inflation pressure into the Nondimensional Tire Model as an input.This paper discusses the effects of tire pressure on tire force and moment output. Effects on lateral force and aligning torque are investigated in detail. Additionally, the effects on cornering stiffness, friction coefficients,…
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The Formula SAE Tire Test Consortium-Tire Testing and Data Handling

University at Buffalo-Edward M. Kasprzak
Calspan Corp.-David Gentz
Published 2006-12-05 by SAE International in United States
The Formula SAE Tire Test Consortium (FSAE TTC) was established to provide high quality tire data to participating FSAE teams for use in the design and setup of their racecars. Currently, data on ten different constructions of tires has been measured at Calspan's Tire Research Facility and distributed to all consortium members.In this paper we review the history of the FSAE TTC-the inception, organization and continuing operation of this all-volunteer effort. Details of tire testing will be explored, including the many options and constraints considered while designing the tire test matrix. Finally, a review of the measured data is provided. This includes a description of all the output channels and an overview of ways in which FSAE teams can make use of the data.
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Re-Examination of FMVSS 213 Using New Car Assessment Program Test Data

University at Buffalo-V. Pateel, S. Arumugasundaram, A. Patra
Calspan Corporation Center for Transportation Injury Research-R. Galganski
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper utilizes a MADYMO computer model and data from sled and crash testing to explore child restraint system certification outcomes for occupant injury tolerance measures embodied in (1) the previous FMVSS 213, (2) its upgraded counterpart, and (3) a similar velocity-change full-scale crash experiment. Model predictions indicate that the FMVSS 213 update constitutes a vital first step in the formulation of a more robust and realistic measure of child restraint system crash protection capability.However, the provision of a wider pulse corridor in the new standard introduces great variability in acceptable outcomes, including some that may significantly increase injury probability. We recommend that near-term future research continue to explore the implications of these changes using reliable testing and modeling.
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Real-time and Remote Scientific Visualization as a Practical Aid for Improved Child Restraint System Analysis

University at Buffalo-K. F. Hulme, A. Patra, S. Arumugasundaram
Calspan Corporation-R. A. Galganski
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The NYSCEDII CRS Visualization Module (NCVM) converts model geometric output to stereoscopic, three-dimensional imagery, and adds a quantitative and scientific component as well. Its scientific visualization capability enables the interactive integration of crash geometry and scientific data, thereby facilitating a greater ability to interpret, re-evaluate, and modify this data. The new functionalities in NCVM’s capabilities serve as the focus of this work, and include four major areas of discussion, namely: a) the incorporation of sled test video footage directly into the simulation for comparison and validation, b) contextual details of the simulated crash by utilizing a model vehicle with textured interiors, thereby facilitating interior cabin collision/interference studies, c) a description of post-processing shortcuts to improve the graphical performance of the visualization (while not compromising necessary detail), and, d) the incorporation of a real-time and remote visualization capability that potentially expands the NCVM from a post-processor to a geographically distributed design tool.
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Incorporating Input Data Uncertainties in Computer Models of Vehicle Systems using the Polynomial Chaos Quadrature Method

University at Buffalo-K. Dalbey, A. Patra, V. Pateel, S. Arumugasundaram
Calspan Corporation-R. Galganksi
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a simple method of accounting for input data uncertainties in computer models by propagating these uncertainties to output quantities of interest. Traditional Monte-Carlo methods are too expensive to apply to complex models of vehicle systems since each sample requires significant effort. The proposed method based on the theory of spectral expansions of the random variables requires an order of magnitude less effort. The methodology is applied to simulations of Child Restraint Systems (CRS) where statistics on the output quantities of Head Injury Criteria and strain at selected points in the CRS shell are evaluated under the assumption of uncertain input elastic modulus and friction parameters.
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Using Anthropometric Modeling for Optimal Ergonomic Considerations in Automobile Interior Design

University at Buffalo-Sameer S. Patwardhan, C. L. Bloebaum, V. N. Krovi
Published 2005-06-14 by SAE International in United States
Computer Aided Ergonomic Design Systems (CAEDS) currently lack the ability of generating human models based on a user-entered database. Additionally, recent studies have not focused on the ability to reverse engineer the anthropometric dimensions that can be suited for a final design. This paper presents a toolbox based on developed methodologies that use human models to specify the interior dimensions of a passenger car. It also allows a designer to create these human models using a database of their choice. The designer can also reverse engineer a population based on the final design, and test any population to find its accommodation range. There are three modules in the toolbox - Human Model Generation, Occupant Driver Packaging, and Reverse Engineering.
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A Virtual Prototyping Toolkit for Assessment of Child Restraint System (CRS) Safety

University at Buffalo-K. F. Hulme, A. Patra, N. Vusirikala
General Dynamics Advanced Information Engineering Services-R. A. Galganski, I. Hatziprokopiou
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Computational modeling continues to play an increasingly significant role in the design of more effective vehicle crash safety systems. Models configured with sophisticated computer analyses permit researchers to perform extensive “what-if?” exploratory studies at a fraction of the cost and time that would be required by physical testing alone. Presently, our research team is developing a modeling and analysis capability that will provide child restraint system (CRS) engineers, designers, and analysts a validation tool that will supplement conventional engineering results attained from sled testing, which is often timely and costly. Supplementing these physical tests and digital modeling capabilities is the newly developed NYSCEDII CRS Visualization Module (NCVM), which allows a user to immersively visualize the MADYMO-calculated automotive crash simulation imagery. Depicted are the motion of, and interactions between, the CRS shell, human “dummy”, harness and latch belt assemblies, and applicable vehicle cabin-interior surfaces and structure; and nodal finite element Von Mises color stress contours for the CRS shell and its attendant restraint straps. Supplemental NCVM features include: plotted instantaneous body segment acceleration-time responses; dummy displacements…
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