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Different Methods to Improve the Exhaust Gas Temperature in Modern Stage V Off-Road Diesel Engine over Transient Emission Cycles

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Mika Lauren, Toomas Karhu, Miika Laivola, Jan Ekman
University of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0903
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents several methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature of a modern diesel engine. A high exhaust gas temperature is needed to improve the after-treatment system efficiency and particulate filter regeneration in low engine loads. This study is based on experimental measurements of two Stage 5 level off-road diesel engines. The effect of the different heating methods determined over steady state runs and emission and performance are presented with standard emission transient test procedure (NRTC). In the first step of the study, an intake air restriction and an exhaust gas restriction method are compared. The intake restriction produces better fuel economy over the measuring cycle. However, with the exhaust restriction, higher exhaust gas temperature can be achieved in low engine loads. In the second phase of study, the intake air restriction method was implemented in the research engine. In addition, active waste gate controlling, and injection retardation methods were taken in use for heating purposes. The engine performance was determined with normal calibration and with high exhaust temperature calibration. The differences to the…
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HC-SCR Catalyst for NOx Reduction in a Non-Road Diesel Engine

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Janne Perus, Mika Laurén, Krister Ekman, Pekka Nousiainen
University of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kaj Lundin
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust pollutants of diesel engines have to be drastically reduced. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) form the main challenge for diesel exhaust cleaning. The fuel economy of the engines must also be kept at an adequate level to prevent the increase in CO2 emissions and operational costs.For diesel engines, there are two main strategies for the reduction of NOx emissions. One is to increase the volume of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The other is to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal. For SCR, urea derived ammonia may be exploited but NOx can also be catalytically reduced by means of hydrocarbons (HC) originating from engine fuel. This latter system is termed HC-SCR.In the present study, an Ag-alumina based prototype HC-SCR catalyst was studied for NOx removal in a turbocharged, intercooled direct-injection non-road diesel engine. The fuel post-injection of the engine common-rail injection system was optimized to produce a sufficient amount of hydrocarbons into the exhaust gases. The efficiency of the catalyst was then investigated in a few sets of…
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Exhaust Particle Number in Off-Road Engines of Different Generations

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Toomas Karhu, Mika Laurén, Krister Ekman, Pekka Nousiainen, Tommi Paanu
University of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kaj Lundin
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In diesel engine development, NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions have to be simultaneously reduced. Fuel consumption also has to be kept as low as possible. Today, exhaust PM is regulated based on particle mass. Ultra-fine particles are, however, known to be hazardous for human health but they do not very much affect the PM mass. Thus, the health effects of an engine can not be evaluated based only on PM mass.To assess the adverse effects of particles, the particle number should also be examined. In this study, particle number emissions were therefore analyzed in several off-road diesel engines of different ages. The engines were developed for low emissions and fuel consumption experimentally, by usually running them according to the 8-mode ISO 8178-4 C1 off-road test cycle. Modern low-sulfur diesel fuel oil was burned, the sulfur content of the batches varying from 8 to 60 mg/kg. In addition to regulated gaseous emissions, the exhaust smoke and particle number concentrations were determined. An ELPI analyzer was adopted for PM number recordings.The results showed that the number…
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Optimization of Some Injection Parameters in a Common-Rail Non-Road Diesel Engine

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Jyri Törnvall, Mika Laurén, Pekka Nousiainen
University of Vaasa and Turku University of Applied Sciences-Seppo Niemi
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The emissions legislation of non-road diesel engines becomes more stringent all the time. In current development work, emissions standards entering into force in the 2010s need to be prepared for. Without question, different exhaust after-treatment systems will be needed but the emissions downstream the engine itself must also be reduced as effectively as possible to improve the operating conditions of after-treatment devices.In the present study, a turbocharged, intercooled direct-injection non-road diesel engine was developed to comply with future emissions legislation. The engine was equipped with a common-rail injection system and a waste-gate turbocharger. The injector tips were optimized. Relative to standard nozzles, the fuel flow rate was first reduced. The effects of the orifice number were then investigated. Next, the coning angle of the fuel sprays was varied at a constant orifice number. Finally, the effects of the intake valve closing timing were briefly studied.The emissions were determined based on the eight-mode ISO 8178 C1 test cycle. Additional loading points were, however, also examined since the engine should cope with the demands of the transient…
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