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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrocarbon based fossil fuels are being used as the main energy resource, burning of which produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and other emissions harmful to environment. Moreover, CO2 is considered as the main contributor to global warming or greenhouse effect. These are the main drivers behind the ongoing research & development in the area of alternative energy sources. Among various alternatives, Hydrogen is identified as the most promising alternative fuel. Hydrogen is the cleanest fuel having some of the most attractive features such as various methods of production from renewable energy (solar, wind, biomass etc.), from fossil fuels etc. H2 as a fuel can be used in various applications such as spark ignition engine, fuel cells etc.Hydrogen has low ignition energy and ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture with air. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant…
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Fuel Economy Benefits with Low Viscosity Engine Oil Formulations on Small Trucks with Chassis Dynamometer Tests

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Prashant Kumar, Reji Mathai, Sanjeev KUMAR, Ashish Kachhawa, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, Snigdhamayee Praharaj
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The growing transportation sector worldwide has opened up a way forward not only for the scientists & researchers but also for the OEMs to find out the options for fuel efficient automotive vehicles with reduced emissions during their usage. The demand of automotive vehicles has been doubled in last few years and in turn the market for lubricants and transmission fluids are flourishing. Several new formulations of lubricants are getting popularized with major suppliers to achieve the end user expectations in terms of fuel economy benefits, engine life and emissions. The market trend is continuously moving towards the improvement in lubricant formulation to the lower viscosity ranges and in this direction several companies are into development of multi-grade low viscosity range of engine oils (lubricants) which is said to be providing the benefits in terms of fuel economy. Also during past few years the low viscosity range of lubricants is getting popularized with OEMs for fuel economy improvement and other added benefits.For validation of the analytical results (laboratory based analysis) of low viscosity range of…
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Evaluating the Soot Handling Performance of Diesel Engine Oils through Optimized Engine Testing Protocol

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Vishnu Vijayakumar, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Majority of light and heavy duty commercial vehicles on road in India use API-CF grade lubricants. Soot accumulation in lubricating oil can result in engine wear and lubricant’s viscosity increase thereby affecting its pumping ability and drain interval. Due to faster lubricant degradation and with emergence of newer engine technologies, there is increasing demand of improving performance of lubricants particularly with respect to soot dispersancy. This paper describes the various engine hardware modifications and optimizations carried out on a commercial BS II, 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine in order to develop a flexible engine test procedure for evaluating the lubricant’s dispersancy/anti wear characteristics up to 6% soot levels. The test severity was generated in order to match real time environment by incorporating various engine hardware modifications like inlet air restriction, retarded injection timing, increased fuel delivery, auxiliary oil sump unit, and reduction in injector pressures. The soot levels generated at the end of the test were correlated to the FSN values. Oil samples were drawn at the end of every 25 hrs of engine operation and…
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Impact of Low Viscosity Engine Oil on Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions of Light Duty Diesel Engine

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The Global Fuel Economy Initiative in 21st session of COP21 to the UNFCCC aims to develop 50 percent more efficient automobiles by the year 2050.This initiative has enhanced interest in fuel economy improvements and emission reduction using novel engine-related technologies and fuel efficient engine oil. Low viscosity grade engine oils have demonstrated the potential to improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lowering the greenhouse gases. In this context of developing fuel efficient engine oils, this study focuses on establishing the validity of an in-house short duration test protocol to differentiate engine oils from a fuel economy aspect and also attempts to relate reduced exhaust emissions. In the present study, low viscosity grade oils - SAE 0W-20, SAE 5W-30 and SAE 20W-40 as the baseline oil, were selected for assessing engine oil effects on fuel economy of diesel engines. Effects of viscosity on engine performance with respect to power, fuel economy and emissions were investigated by conducting fuel economy engine tests on a single cylinder Petter AV1 diesel engine. In the results, higher…
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Investigation on Combustion, Performance and Emissions of Automotive Engine Fueled with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Punit Kumar Singh, A S Ramadhas, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0886
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
To tackle the problems associated with the volatility of crude oil prices and ever stringent emission norms, oil industries and automobiles manufacturers are experimenting with various alternative fuels to increase its percentage share in the energy mix and to reduce the vehicular emissions. Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuels for the gasoline engines as it does not require any major engine modification and new infrastructure for the fuel distribution network. Ethanol as sole fuel or blending component for gasoline for use in spark ignition engines has been investigated many decades. Currently, 10% ethanol is blended in motor gasoline in India and the ethanol concentration may be further increased in future. In order to study the effect of higher blends of ethanol (upto 20%) on engine in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission, investigations were carried out on a latest generation passenger car engine in a climatic controlled test cell. Engine combustion, performance and emissions were analyzed at full throttle condition at regular speed intervals. Higher octane number and oxygen in the ethanol blends improved the combustion…
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Effect of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Combustion and Emissions of a Passenger Car Engine at Part Load Operations

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, P Sakthivel, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuel for gasoline engines to tackle the problems associated with nation’s energy security and environmental pollution. Ethanol can be used as a sole fuel or gasoline blending component for use in spark ignition engines. BIS Specification 2796: 2013 permitted to blend 10% ethanol in gasoline and the concentration may be further increased in coming years in India. Research on combustion of ethanol blended gasoline on modern gasoline engine is highly desirable. This paper highlights the experimental investigation carried out on the latest generation multipoint fuel injection system passenger car engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline blends in a climatic controlled test cell to study the in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Part load tests at regular speed intervals were conducted using ethanol blends. Combustion duration decreased with increase in engine load and speed for the all test fuels. Longer burn duration was observed with ethanol blends compared to neat gasoline at various load and speed conditions. Negligible changes peak pressure and cumulative heat release were observed among the fuel blends. Lower…
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Evaluation of Long Drain Gas Engine Oil on Heavy Duty Engine Using Hydrogen Blended CNG

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Anil Bhardwaj, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh, B P Das
Tata Motors Limited-Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N B Chougule
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever increasing demand of fuels for vehicles can only be met by use of alternate fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and is considered to be the first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy. While, automotive industry matures up with the usage of new engines, lubricant manufacturers are also moving on to the next stage by formulating oils to be used in gas engines such as CNG, HCNG etc.This paper presents the evaluation of gas engine oil on 6-cylinder heavy duty CNG engine using HCNG. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was optimized for using HCNG fuel. Initial performance of the engine using HCNG was compared vis-à-vis CNG and, thereafter, the engine was subjected to endurance test of 500 hours as per 8 mode engine simulated driving cycle. It has been observed that HCNG shows reduction of CO, THC and CH4 emissions and…
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Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air - A Case Study at the Vicinity of Fuel Filling Stations in New Delhi, India

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Neeraj Kumar, Prashant Kumar, M. Sithananthan, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das
Published 2015-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in ambient air are potentially toxic among the air pollutants. They are present in the urban atmosphere due to both exhaust emissions from vehicles and evaporative emissions at fuel filling stations. The present study aims to provide an indication of ambient levels of benzene, a carcinogenic VOC in the immediate vicinity of petrol filling stations in Delhi & National Capital Region (NCR). The monitoring of benzene is conducted across the vicinity of petrol stations to ascertain the effect of outside pollutant concentration on forecourt area. Continuous monitoring of benzene was achieved by an air quality monitoring facility stationed across the selected locations at four selected fuel filling stations. It was observed that the average concentrations of benzene measured during the study ranged between 2.28 ppb - 9.43 ppb. The study also reveals few peaks in the benzene level during heavy traffic count and these values were higher than the limiting value of 1.56 ppb as prescribed by NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standard) of India. The temporal variation in the…
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Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance & Emission Characteristics of a 6.0 L Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved Singh, A K Sehgal, B Basu, R K Malhotra
Ashok Leyland Technical Center-S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil Kumar, G Gopal
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, experimental evaluation was carried out on a 6.0 L heavy duty CNG engine which has been optimized for 18 percent hydrogen blended CNG (HCNG). Optimization test results shows that use of HCNG results in reduced CO, THC & CH4 emissions by 39, 25 & 25 percent respectively and increase in NOx by 32 percent vis-a-vis CNG. After optimization the engine was subjected to endurance test of 600 hours as per 15 mode engine simulated city driving cycle with HCNG. The performance & emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per European Transient Cycle (ETC). Test results indicate that there were no significant changes observed in engine power output over the complete endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) measurements were consistent at all the 15 modes of engine simulated city driving cycle. It was observed from the test results that over the period of endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG, all the major exhaust emissions species such as CO, THC,…
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Impact of Fuel Additives on Intake Valve Deposits, Combustion Chamber Deposits and Emissions

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-A. S. Ramadhas, V. P. Singh, M. Subramanian, G. K. Acharya, B. Basu, R. K. Malhotra
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline components play a prime role in the formation of deposits on engine components. In order to reduce the deposit forming tendency of fuels, oil marketing companies dope the multi functional additives in gasoline for trouble free operation over a longer period of time. For assessing intake valve deposits and combustion chamber deposits forming tendency of gasoline/additised gasoline, Coordination European Council (CEC) has established the engine test method CEC F-20-A-98 on Mercedes Benz M 111 gasoline engine. The above test method is able to discriminate IVD and CCD formation tendency with neat fuel and additised fuel. In the present work, an effort has been made to discriminate between the additives and an attempt has also been made to understand their impact on emission characteristics.Gasoline treated with multi functional additives reduced the intake valve deposits substantially and decreased the CO and HC emissions, whereas multifunctional additives increased combustion chamber deposits. The intake valve and combustion chamber deposits formation and exhaust emissions depend upon the treat rate and components of multifunctional additives blended with gasoline. The dosage…
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