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Development of Low Temperature Active Three Way Catalyst

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yui Nakanishi, Yukio Suehiro, Masanori Hashimoto, Takeshi Narishige
Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.-Ryo Takeuchi, Yasuhiro Shimamoto, Shogo Sano, Hironori Iwakura
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, fuel efficiency has been improved by using many technologies such as downsizing engine, turbocharger and direct injection to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicle. However, the temperature of the exhaust gas from the engines using these technologies becomes lower than that form conventional one. That increases the difficulty for three-way catalyst (TWC) to purify CO, HC and NOx enough because TWC is not warmed up just after engine starting. In order to reduce cold emission mentioned above, we have been studying the warmup strategy of which the key property is thermal mass of TWC. To achieve early warmup, thermal mass of TWC is reduced by lightening the weight of (1) substrate and (2) catalytic materials, namely washcoat amount. Along with the strategy, we have developed TWC with lightweight substrate and applied it from the 2016 model year CIVIC. It is predicted that the reduction of washcoat amount results in enhancing temperature rising performance because of the decrease in thermal mass but deteriorating exhaust gas purification performance after aging due to the degradation of…
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Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Chiaki Seki, Takayuki Watanabe, Takeshi Mori, Atsushi Furukawa, Naohiro Satoh, Yusuke Imai, Yuichi Matsuo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested. First of all, as a result of Mercury porosimetry analysis revealed that the pore diameter of the filter wall of GPF is a key factor for the pressure drop and the Particulate Number filtration efficiency. Next, as a result of analyzing the 3D model created by the μX-ray computed…
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Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Takeshi Hotaka, Tomonori Sakai, Hideki Miura
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula. It was verified that the application of the new correction formula reduced variation in running resistance from 2.7% (in the case of regulation correction) to 1.0%.In addition, in order to offer a simpler method of realizing the same correction, a technique for correction…
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Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Noritaka Masumitsu, Shinichiro Otsuka, Ryoko Fujikura, Yusuke Imai, Tetsuo Endo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure.Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.Although GPF can collect PM, Ash derived from the engine oil component accumulates and there is a problem in that the pressure drop increases. As the pressure…
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Life Estimation of Rolling Bearings Based on the Colors on Sliding Surfaces

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yuki Ono, Kenji Matsumoto
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It is experimentally known that the surface color of bearing balls gradually becomes brown during long term operation of the bearings under appropriate lubrication conditions. That exhibits the possibility of an estimation method for residual life of ball bearings without any abnormal wear on the surfaces by precise color measurements. Therefore, we examined what set colors on bearing balls by surface observation using scanning electron microscopy and subsurface analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that an amorphous carbon layer had gradually covered ball surfaces during operation of the bearings. The layer not only changed ball color but also made overall ball shapes closer to a complete sphere. The report also introduces a uniquely developed color analyzer which enabled color measurements on metallic surfaces, such as the above-mentioned balls.
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Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Jun Machida, Naoyoshi Madoka, Shogo Hayase
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions. The number of series-connected cells in each lithium-ion battery module was increased from 18 to 36, making it possible to reduce the number of modules from four to two, reducing the size of the battery pack against…
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Development of Motor with Heavy Rare Earth-Free Magnet for Two-Motor Hybrid System

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yuta Ito, Tadanobu Aoki, Tomokazu Naito, Toru Hiranishi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Conventional HEV motors use neodymium magnets with added heavy rare earths, to realize high output and size reduction. However, deposits of heavy rare earths such as Dysprosium (Dy) and Terbium (Tb) are unevenly distributed, so it is important to reduce the amount used, because of supply issue and material cost. In this paper, the application of a heavy rare earth-free magnet is considered on the new motor for a two-motor hybrid system. Compared to conventional neodymium magnets, heavy rare earth free magnets tend to have low coercivity. Also, heavy rare earth-free magnet have low thermal durability, so it is not easy to apply them to motors for a two-motor hybrid system, which requires high output and small size. The motor requires twice as much torque and six times output than one-motor hybrid system. Increase demagnetization resistance and magnet cooling performance is studied by development of the new motor. With the new rotor structure, a magnetic circuit suitable for the magnetic property of heavy rare earth-free magnet was designed, and demagnetization resistance property is raised 24%.…
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Prediction of Ductile Fracture Propagation of High Strength Steels in Automotive Structures

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hideyuki Okada, Yasuhisa Egawa, Kenichiro Fukagawa
JFE Steel Corporation-Kentaro Sato, Takayuki Futatsuka
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Initiation and propagation of ductile fractures in crashed automotive components made from high strength steels are investigated in order to understand the mechanism of fracture propagation. Fracture of these components is often prone to occur at the sheet edge in a strain concentration zone under crash deformation. The fracture then extends intricately to the inside of the structure under the influence of the local stress and strain field.In this study, a simple tensile test and a 3-point bending test of high strength steels with tensile strengths of 590 MPa and 1180 MPa are carried out. In the tensile test, a coupon having a hole and a notch is deformed in a uniaxial condition. The effect of the notch type on the strain concentration and fracture behavior are investigated by using a digital imaging strain measurement system. For the 3-point bending test, hat-shaped parts having various types of notches and a hole located near the notch are examined to simulate ductile fracture in a crashed automotive part. The experimental results indicate that the shape of the…
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Material and Damage Models of Randomly-Oriented Thermoplastic Composites for Crash Simulation

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Seiji Hayashi, Mitsuharu Kan
JSOL Corporation-Kei Saito, Masato Nishi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study developed a material model with a damage function that supports finite element analyses in crash strength analyses of beams manufactured using randomly-oriented long fiber thermoplastics composites. These materials are composites with randomly-oriented carbon tow having a fiber length of approximately one inch, and are isotropic in-plane from a macro perspective, but exhibit different damage properties for tension and compression. In the out-of-plane direction, the influence of the resin matrix properties increases, and the materials properties are similar to those of laminate materials. This means they are anisotropic materials with physical properties that differ from those in the in-plane direction. In order to verify the influence of these characteristics, the damage process was observed by three-point bending of a flat plate, which is a mixed mode that includes tension, compression, and out-of-plane shear. Digital image correlation was used to analyze the strain distribution in the edgewise direction, and the results showed that damage progresses from the surface toward the inside of the plate. A damage model was created that takes this phenomenon into account.…
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Numerical Modeling Study of Detailed Gas Diffusivity into Catalyst Washcoat for Lean NOx Catalyst

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Osami Yamamoto, Yuichi Matsuo, Shinichi Tosa, Tatsuya Okayama
RES Group Inc-Zhiwei Zhang, John Tolsma
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To evaluate the relationship between the exhaust gas purification performance and the catalyst pore properties related to gas diffusion, an elementary reaction model was combined with gas diffusion into catalyst pores, referred to as the pseudo-2D gas diffusion/reaction model. It was constructed for Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst as lean NOx catalyst. The gas diffusion was described as macro pore diffusion between the catalyst particles and meso pore diffusion within the particle. The kinetic model was composed of 26 reactions of NO/CO/O2 chemistry including 17 Pt/Al2O3 catalyst reactions and 9 CeO2 reactions. Arrhenius parameters were optimized using activity measurement results from various catalysts with various pore properties, meso pore volume and diameter, macro pore volume and diameter, particle size, and washcoat thickness. Good agreement was achieved between the measured and calculated values. Moreover, as compared to the performance of other catalysts which was not used for reaction model calibration, the simulated results were in good agreement with this experimental data. Using the calibrated reaction model combined with detailed gas diffusion model, a sensitivity analysis for NOx…
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