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Development of Cooling Fan Model and Heat Exchange Model of Condenser to Predict the Cooling and the Heat Resistance Performance of Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yuichi Fukuchi, Kunihiko Yoshitake, Kazutaka Yokota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0157
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The cooling performance and the heat resistance performance of commercial vehicle are balanced with aerodynamic performance, output power of power train, styling, the location of sensors, cost and many other parameters. Therefore, it is desired to predict the cooling performance and the heat resistance performance with high accuracy at the early stage of development. Three forms of heat transfer consist of conduction, convection and radiation. Among of these components, it is sometimes difficult to solve the thermal conduction accurately, because to prepare accurate shape and properties needs lots of time and efforts at the early stage of development. Therefore, the cooling performance of heat exchangers and the air temperature distribution in the engine compartment are predicted to access the cooling and the heat resistance performance of vehicle at the preliminary design stage. The air temperature distribution is dominated by the distribution of heat radiation on heat exchangers, the flow distribution which is produced by fans and thermal convection at the surface of parts in the engine compartment. For the case of middle or high vehicle…
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Onboard Ethanol-Gasoline Separation System for Octane-on-Demand Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hiroshi Chishima, Daiko Tsutsumi, Toru Kitamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0350
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bio-ethanol is being used worldwide as an alternative fuel because of CO2 emission reduction and energy sustainability. It is common knowledge that ethanol has an advantage of high anti-knock quality. It is also well known that enhancement of both fuel economy and high load performance for general gasoline engines are limited by knocking. In order to increase anti-knock performance, a fuel system was developed to separate ethanol blended gasoline fuel into high-octane number fuel (high-concentration ethanol fuel) and low-octane number fuel (low-concentration ethanol fuel) on a vehicle. The onboard fuel separation system, installed in the fuel tank, mainly consists of a pervaporation membrane module, a fuel supply pump for the membrane, heat exchangers for fuel heating, a condenser for the permeated fuel vapor and a vacuum pump to control the pressure on the permeation side. Vapor that was not condensed at the condenser is supplied to the engine through a canister purge line. In this study, it was revealed that the onboard fuel separation system has controllability sufficient for use in automobiles by evaluating the…
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LES Modeling Study on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in a DISI Engine

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
RWTH Aachen University-Tobias Falkenstein, Marco Davidovic, Antonio Attili, Mathis Bode, Hongchao Chu, Heinz Pitsch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0242
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) is a prerequisite for the development and control of spark-ignition engines with increased efficiency and reduced engine-out emissions. To this end, Large-Eddy Simulations can improve the understanding of stochastic in-cylinder phenomena during the engine design process, if the employed modeling approach is sufficiently accurate. To assess the predictive capabilities of the turbulent combustion model used in this work, an engine-relevant Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) dataset of premixed flame propagation in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is considered for a-posteriori investigations. LES predictions using the Flame Front / Progress Variable Equation Model are demonstrated to be in good agreement with the DNS results. Integral flame propagation results are shown to be unaffected by the choice of two eddy viscosity models, although some differences in the SFS velocity distributions near the flame front exist between the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model (DSM) and the Coherent Structure Model (CSM). The validated combustion model has been applied to investigate CCV in a direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine under fuel-lean conditions with respect to a stoichiometric baseline operating…
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Comparative Analysis of Thermally Induced Seizure Regimes between Accelerated Simulation Test and Long Term Vehicle Operation in Metal V-belt CVT

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Tokunaga, Jun Mori
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0907
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Honda is currently developing and operationalizing a measurement device that allows the state of lubrication to be understood by measuring the in-oil particle distribution. This is a new attempt to detect burn-in and abnormal friction in advance, thus making it possible to suspend actual vehicle tests before breakdown and investigate causes. Seizure was therefore simulated, and in-oil abrasion powder was examined. The results showed that a large amount of scale-shaped abrasion powder was produced due to fatigue during normal operation, while little scale-shaped abrasion powder was detected following the simulation test. This suggests that when a high-load test is performed in order to shorten the test time, the test does not simulate driving conditions in the market, because the state of the loads on the sliding surfaces differs from market conditions.
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On Road Fuel Economy Impact by the Aerodynamic Specifications under the Natural Wind

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yasuyuki Onishi, Kenta Ogawa, Jun Sawada, Youji Suwa, Fortunato Nucera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0678
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to some papers, the label fuel economy and the actual fuel economy experienced by the customers may exhibit a gap. One of the reasons may stem from the aerodynamic drag variations due to the natural wind. The fuel consumptions are measured on the bench test under the several driving modes by using the road load as input conditions. The road load is measured through the coast down test under less wind ambient conditions as determined by each regulation. The present paper aims to analyze the natural wind specifications encountered by the vehicle on the public road and to operate a comparison between the fuel consumptions and the driving energy. In this paper, the driving energy is calculated by the aerodynamic drag from the natural wind specifications and driving conditions. This driving energy and the fuel consumptions show good correlation. The fuel consumption is obtained from the vehicle ECU data. The driving energy is calculated by the aerodynamic drag and the vehicle driving conditions through the time history data on the road. Aerodynamic drag is…
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Powertrain Thermal System Development for small BEV

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yoshikazu Ohnuma, Yosuke Yamagishi, Katsuya Minami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1383
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic performance of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is affected by battery output power, which depends on state of charge (SOC) and the temperature of battery cells. The temperature of the batteries varies in particular with the environment, in which the user stores the vehicle, and the battery output power. It is therefore necessary to employ thermal management systems that can control the battery temperature within the optimal range under severely hot and cold conditions in BEVs. A highly sophisticated thermal management system and its operation strategy were developed to fulfill the above requirements. The powertrain components to be thermo-controlled were located into two coolant circuits having different temperature range. The compact and efficient front-end heat exchangers were designed to optimally balance the cooling performance of powertrain, cabin comfort, vehicle aerodynamics and the vehicle design. The battery pack was optimally thermo-controlled by precisely controlling two 3-way valves in all driving and environmental conditions. To reduce the temperature variation between battery cells, the coolant passage including cooling plates in the battery pack were designed so that…
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Development of electrostatic capacity type steering sensor using conductive leather

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Shotaro Odate, Naohiro Sakamoto
Autoliv Japan Ltd.-Yukinori Midorikawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1209
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) implemented by the US Department of Transportation, there were 10,743 accidents in 2016 that involved departure from the road, and among those accidents there were 12,043 fatalities. Lane departure prevention systems are expected to make a significant contribution to reducing accidents of this kind. Progress is also being made in the development of systems that further advance automation to enable autonomous driving. However, the evolution of these kinds of advanced safety systems is also raising concerns about the possibility that when systems are providing driving assistance, drivers may take their hands off the steering wheel and stop paying attention because they place too much trust in the safety systems. In addition, the occurrence of a malfunction in any part of the safety systems will mean that the responsibility for vehicle operation has to be returned to the driver immediately, but it is possible that the driver will not be able to respond adequately. Sensors that detect steering operations by the driver are therefore taking…
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Residual stress analysis for additive manufactured large automobile parts by using neutron and simulation

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ikeda, Satoshi Hirose, Hisao Uozumi, Tatsuya Okayama, TAKASHI KATSURAI
Honda R & D Americas Inc-Alan Seid
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1071
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Metal additive manufacturing has high potential to produce automobile parts, due to its shape flexibility and unique material properties. On the other hand, residual stress which is generated by rapid solidification causes deformation, cracks and failure under building process. To avoid these problems, understanding of internal residual stress distribution is necessary. However, from the view point of measureable area, conventional residual stress measurement methods such as strain gages and X-ray diffractometers, is limited to only the surface layer of the parts. Therefore, neutron which has a high penetration capability was chosen as a probe to measure internal residual stress in this research. By using time of flight neutron diffraction facility VULCAN at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, residual stress for mono-cylinder head, which were made of aluminum alloy, was measured non-distractively. From the result of precise measurement, interior stress distribution was visualized. According to the result, bottom area where was just above a base plate showed higher stress gradient than top where was the farthest side from a base plate. This trend came from restriction of…
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Elucidation of the Sulfide Corrosion Mechanism in Piston Pin Bushings

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryuta Motani, Kazuki Maeyama, Kenta Yoshii, Shinji Oshida, Hiroki Masuda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Tatsuya Okayama, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1079
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, downsizing is realizing lighter and more compact engines, but at the same time, the use of turbochargers and other supercharging devices in order to supplement power and torque is increasing their power density, resulting in higher thermal and mechanical loads. In such environment, corrosion of the copper alloy bushes (piston pin bushes) that are press-fitted into the small ends of the conrods is becoming an issue. It is known that automotive bearing materials such as bushes suffer sulfidation corrosion as a result of reacting with an extreme-pressure additive (Zn-DTP) in the lubricating oil, but the reaction paths remain unclear. The research discussed in this paper therefore tried to elucidate the reaction paths in the reaction between Zn-DTP and copper in actual vehicle environments. Unit corrosion tests were conducted in order to identify the effect of the state of degradation of the oil and its temperature and copper content on corrosion. The results of these tests suggested that the direct reaction between copper and Zn-DTP was not the main factor in the corrosion under study,…
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Analysis of CVT Element Vibration by In-Situ Measurement

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga, Toshihiro Saito
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0906
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
When the belt of a metal pushing-belt CVT is wrapped around the pulleys, vibration is said to be generated from the friction force caused by the elements that make up the belt rubbing against each other. In order to verify this, a small data logger with a triaxial accelerometer (G Sensor) was developed in house, then fixed on a side surface of a movable pulley and measurements were conducted at engine speeds characteristic of actual driving (1500-2500 rpm). The measurement results showed that there is a difference between the average radius of the belt when it is wrapped around the pulley and when it is not wrapped around the pulley, demonstrating that vibration is occurring.