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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015.1
Published 2020-01-29 by SAE International in United States
Erratum
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Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company, USA-Eric Kurtz
USA-Stephen Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0016
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber. A conceptual model summarizes key processes in the evolution of turbulent flow for main injections starting after TDC. Differences in turbulent flow evolution are described for a near-TDC main injection, and potential variations in combustion system design and operating parameters to enhance vortex formation under these conditions are hypothesized. The parametric studies executed to…
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Oxidation of Soybean Biodiesel Fuel in Diesel Engine Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
During diesel engine operation, some fuel is entrained in engine oil, particularly as a consequence of strategies to regenerate NOx traps or particle filters. This “fuel dilution” of oil can adversely affect engine oil properties and performance. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel is more prone to fuel dilution and more susceptible to oxidation. Oxidation stability experiments were conducted at 160°C using a modified Rapid Small-Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) and a Rancimat instrument with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% biodiesel in four fully formulated engine oils, two partially formulated engine oils, and two base oils. These experiments showed decreasing oxidation stability with increasing biodiesel content. An exception was noted with the least stable oils (two base oils and one engine oil) in which 5 wt% biodiesel improved the oxidation stability relative to oil without biodiesel. Experiments with biodiesel distillation fractions identified this stability enhancement within the least volatile biodiesel fraction, consistent with natural antioxidants in the biodiesel. Omission of two engine oil additives, antioxidants and zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), led to an unexpected increase in oxidation…
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Data Privacy in the Emerging Connected Mobility Services: Architecture, Use Cases, Privacy Risks, and Countermeasures

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Ford Motor Company, USA-Brahim Medjahed, Yu Seung Kim, Pramita Mitra
University of Michigan–Dearborn, USA-Huaxin Li, Di Ma
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0004
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services is transforming the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of consumer data are being collected and utilized to provide personalized mobility services. Using big data poses serious challenges to data privacy. To that end, the risks of privacy leakage are amplified by data aggregations from multiple sources and exchanging data with third-party service providers, in face of the recent advances in data analytics. This article provides a review of the connected vehicle landscape from case studies, system characteristics, and dataflows. It also identifies potential challenges and countermeasures.
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Localization Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Ford Motor Company, USA-Tyler G.R. Reid, Gaurav Pandey
Ford Autonomous Vehicles, LLC, USA-Sarah E. Houts, Robert Cammarata, Graham Mills, Siddharth Agarwal, Ankit Vora
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-03-0012
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles require precise knowledge of their position and orientation in all weather and traffic conditions for path planning, perception, control, and general safe operation. Here we derive these requirements for autonomous vehicles based on first principles. We begin with the safety integrity level, defining the allowable probability of failure per hour of operation based on desired improvements on road safety today. This draws comparisons with the localization integrity levels required in aviation and rail where similar numbers are derived at 10−8 probability of failure per hour of operation. We then define the geometry of the problem where the aim is to maintain knowledge that the vehicle is within its lane and to determine what road level it is on. Longitudinal, lateral, and vertical localization error bounds (alert limits) and 95% accuracy requirements are derived based on the United States (US) road geometry standards (lane width, curvature, and vertical clearance) and allowable vehicle dimensions. For passenger vehicles operating on freeway roads, the result is a required lateral error bound of 0.57 m (0.20 m, 95%),…
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Torque and Pressure CFD Correlation of a Torque Converter

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Company, USA-Steve Frait, Ram Devendran
Michigan Technological University, USA-Edward De Jesus Rivera, Mark Woodland, Darrell Robinette, Jason Blough, Carl Anderson
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0012
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
A torque converter was instrumented with 29 pressure transducers inside five cavities under study (impeller, turbine, stator, clutch cavity between the pressure plate and the turbine shell). A computer model was created to establish correlation with measured torque and pressure. Torque errors between test and simulation were within 5% and K-Factor and torque ratio errors within 2%. Turbulence intensity on the computer model was used to simulate test conditions representing transmission low and high line pressure settings. When turbulence intensity was set to 5%, pressure simulation root mean square errors were within 11%-15% for the high line pressure setting and up to 34% for low line pressure setting. When turbulence intensity was increased to 50% for the low line pressure settings, a 6% reduced root mean square error in the pressure simulations was seen. For all pressure settings, cavities closer to the converter inlet required a 5% turbulence intensity while the cavities inside or near the torus were better suited with 50% turbulence intensity levels.
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Modeling and Optimal Design of All-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Light Trucks

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Company, USA-Xiaowu Zhang
Robert Bosch LLC, USA-Nikhil Ravi
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0003
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy and performance are both important in the design of hybrid pickup trucks. All-wheel drive is essential to ensure superior performance compared to two-wheel-drive designs. In this article, as a comprehensive extension work to the article published in ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference [1] on all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid truck, we investigate the modeling, design, and control problem of AWD hybrid vehicles and develop a methodology to identify optimal designs. This methodology 1) formulates an automated modeling process, 2) searches exhaustively through all possible AWD designs, and 3) employs a near-optimal energy management strategy, to obtain a family of designs with superior performance and fuel economy. A design case study for a hybrid Ford F-150 is conducted, to showcase this design process.
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Force Transmission Characteristics for a Loaded Structural-Acoustic Tire Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Company, USA-Matthew Black
Purdue University, USA-Rui Cao, J. Stuart Bolton
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-04-0025
Published 2018-10-23 by SAE International in United States
Concerns about tire noise radiation arise partly from city traffic planning, environmental protection, and pedestrian safety standpoints, while from the vehicle passengers’ perspective, noise transmitted to the vehicle interior is more important. It is the latter concern that is addressed in this article. Sound-absorbing materials generally offer good absorption at higher frequencies, but the reduction of relatively low frequency, structure-borne tire noise is a continuing focus of many auto manufacturers. A tire’s internal, acoustic cavity resonance is a very strong contributing factor to tire-related structure-borne noise, and it can easily be perceived by passengers. Some reduction of vehicle cabin noise can be achieved through the insertion of sound-absorbing material in the tires. However, apart from the additional cost for such tires, there is also an increased complexity when repairing them because of the need to avoid damaging the sound-absorptive lining. In that light, modifying the design of the tire-rim and suspension system to decrease the cavity noise influence without the addition of sound-absorbing material has a clear benefit. To that end, a fully coupled, structural-acoustic…
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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE AND VEHICLE -TO-RIGID FIXED BARRIER FRONTAL IMPACTS

Ford Motor Company, USA-Saeed Barbat, Xiaowei Li, Priya Prasad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2001-06-0031
Published 2001-06-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The relationship between designing for both rigid fixed barrier (RFB) and vehicle-to-vehicle tests is a topical area of research. Specifically, vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility has been a topic of keen interest to many researchers, and the interplay between the two aspects of design is presently addressed.In this paper, the studied vehicles for potential vehicle-to-vehicle impacts included: sport utility vehicles (SUVs), Pickups (PUs), and passenger cars. The SUV/PU-to-Car frontal impact tests were compared to those obtained from vehicle-to-rigid fixed barrier frontal impacts. Acceleration pulses at the B-pillar/rocker as well as dash and cabin intrusions were monitored and compared. Additionally, the energy distributions in SUV/PU-to-Car crash tests were compared to those of single vehicle-to-RFB tests.It was concluded from the analysis that vehicle weight and front-end stiffness were not always the overriding factors dictating performance. Design alternatives that have positive impact on the distribution of energy on both vehicles involved in a crash were shown to provide improvement in vehicle compatibility. In the present work, it was also shown that good geometrical interaction in SUV/PU-to-Car impact was fundamental in providing…

EVALUATION OF VEHICLE COMPATIBILITY IN VARIOUS FRONTAL IMPACT CONFIGURATIONS

Ford Motor Company, USA-Saeed Barbat, Xiaowei Li, Priya Prasad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2001-06-0097
Published 2001-06-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Light truck vehicles (LTVs), sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and vans collectively make up a growing segment of the total automotive fleet sales, particularly in the United States. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified this trend and has increased the extent of its research in vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility. Additionally, vehicle compatibility concerns have also been emphasized by International Harmonization Research Activity (IHRA). Accordingly, with intention to further enhance road safety, research in the area of crash compatibility between cars and LTVs in different crash configurations is of significant importance.This paper describes a part of ongoing research at Ford Motor Company to further investigate the effect of compatibility in SUV/LTV-to-Car crashes. Test results of SUV/LTV-to-Car crashes involving various frontal impact configurations were analyzed in order to develop test procedures and requirements to help assess vehicle compatibility. Specifically, three SUV-to-Car frontal impact configurations were assessed in the present study: full overlap collinear impact, 50% offset collinear impact, and 30-degree oblique impact. In each of the tests, both the target and bullet vehicles contained a Hybrid III…