Your Selections

Eindhoven University of Technology
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Jinlin Han, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation. Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases and NOx emissions increase with the increase of injection pressure. It was also found that for a constant lambda (1.55) the stable operating load range of BH80 is limited to relatively high load (>8 bar…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

Eindhoven University of Technology-Jinlin Han, Shuli Wang, Bart Somers
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated. All the measurements were performed at the same load, combustion phasing, lambda and engine speed. The results show that all three injection strategies produced ultra-low soot emission, while less NOx emission was noticed for pilot-main injection because of less diffusion combustion mode. Pilot-main injection strategy…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation of Late Stage Conventional Diesel Combustion - Effect of Additives

Eindhoven University of Technology-P.C. Bakker, Robbert Willems, Nico Dam, Bart Somers
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Caroline Wakefield, Mark Brewer, Roger Cracknell
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The accepted model of conventional diesel combustion [1] assumes a rich premixed flame slightly downstream of the maximum liquid penetration. The soot generated by this rich premixed flame is burnt out by a subsequent diffusion flame at the head of the jet. Even in situations in which the centre of combustion (CA50) is phased optimally to maximize efficiency, slow late stage combustion can still have a significant detrimental impact on thermal efficiency.Data is presented on potential late-stage combustion improvers in a EURO VI compliant HD engine at a range of speed and load points. The operating conditions (e.g. injection timings, EGR levels) were based on a EURO VI calibration which targets 3 g/kWh of engine-out NOx. Rates of heat release were determined from the pressure sensor data. To investigate late stage combustion, focus was made on the position in the cycle at which 90% of the fuel had combusted (CA90).An EN590 compliant fuel was tested. To this fuel was added an organic compound, commonly encountered in sunscreen products, that was designed to absorb ultraviolet light.…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

Eindhoven University of Technology-Noud Maes, Nico Dam, Bart Somers
FPT Motorenforschung AG-Gilles Hardy
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction. Experimentally, low- and high-temperature reaction product distributions are imaged simultaneously using single-shot planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde and high-speed line-of-sight imaging of the chemically-excited hydroxyl radical (OH*). Interference of soot incandescence in experimental OH* recordings is assessed to improve interpretation of the results. Interference by poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) LIF and soot radiation is mostly evaded by evaluating flame…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Impact of Operating Conditions on Post-Injection Efficacy; a Study Using Design-of-Experiments

Eindhoven University of Technology-Robbert Willems, P.C. Bakker, Bart Somers
Toyota Motorsport GmbH-Robbert Dreezen
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Post-injection strategies prove to be a valuable option for reducing soot emission, but experimental results often differ from publication to publication. These discrepancies are likely caused by the selected operating conditions and engine hardware in separate studies. Efforts to optimize not only engine-out soot, but simultaneously fuel economy and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) complicate the understanding of post-injection effects even more. Still, the large amount of published work on the topic is gradually forming a consensus. In the current work, a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) procedure and regression analysis are used to investigate the influence of various operating conditions on post-injection scheduling and efficacy. The study targets emission reductions of soot and NOx, as well as fuel economy improvements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy-duty compression ignition engine at three load-speed combinations. Regression analysis shows that the eventual decrease in engine-out soot heavily depends on the air-excess ratio. This observation supports the suggestion that enhanced late-cycle mixing of fuel and oxidizer is an important contributor to observed soot reductions. Furthermore, simultaneous reductions in emissions of NOx…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

Eindhoven University of Technology-Bart Somers
King Abdullah University of Science & Tech-Yanzhao An, R Vallinayagam, S Vedharaj, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Alaaeldin Dawood, Bengt Johansson
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Preliminary Investigation of a Bio-Based Low Sulfur Heavy Fuel Oil

Eindhoven University of Technology-Michel Cuijpers, Michael Golombok, Hylke Van Avendonk, Michael Boot
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Recently introduced sulfur caps on marine fuels in so-called sulfur emission control areas (SECAs) are forcing shipping companies to sail on more or less automotive grade diesel in lieu of the considerably less expensive, but sulfur-laden heavy fuel oil (HFO) to which they were accustomed. This development is an opportunity for a bio-based substitute, given that most biomass is sulfur free by default. Moreover, given that biomass is typically solid to start with, cracking it to an HFO grade, which is highly viscous in nature, will involve fewer and/or less harsh process steps than would be the case if an automotive grade fuel were to be targeted. In this study, a renewable low sulfur heavy fuel oil (LSHFO) has been produced by means of subcritical water assisted lignin depolymerization in the presence of a short length surfactant, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE). The resulting oil contains a lignin derived content of 75 wt.-%, with the remainder consisting of EGBE and water (reusable). The derived LSHFO has a 20% higher heating value than the lignin feedstock.…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Redesign of a Radial Turbine Variable Stator Geometry with Optimized Free Space Parameter for Improved Efficiency

Eindhoven University of Technology-Ruud Eichhorn, Michael Boot, David Smeulders, Michel Cuijpers
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The Free Space Parameter (FSP) is evaluated as a predictor for the efficiency of a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). Experiments show an optimum value at 2 times the vane height. However, the optimum was found to be dependent on the pressure ratio, yielding an optimum closer to 2.5 at pressures of 2 and 2.5 bar. After this validation the FSP of a conventional VGT is evaluated and an attempt is made to improve the efficiency of this turbine using the FSP. A new geometry is proposed which yields more favorable FSP values. Experiments show that at the original design point the efficiency is unchanged. However, at both larger and smaller nozzle area’s the turbine efficiency improves as predicted by the FSP values. A relative efficiency improvement of 3 to 28 % is attained.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Spray Combustion Analysis of Humins

Eindhoven University of Technology-Jos Feijen, Niels Deen
Avantium Chemicals B.V.-Gerard Klink, Ed Jong
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Second generation biomass is an attractive renewable feedstock for transport fuels. Its sulfur content is generally negligible and the carbon cycle is reduced from millions to tens of years. One hitherto non-valorized feedstock are so-called humins, a residual product formed in the conversion of sugars to platform chemicals, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and methoxymethylfurfural, intermediates in the production of FDCA, a building block used to produce the polyethylene furanoate (PEF) bottle by Avantium.The focus of this study is to investigate the spray combustion behavior of humins as a renewable alternative for heavy fuel oil (HFO) under large two-stroke engine-like conditions in an optically accessible constant volume chamber. To reduce the viscosity to HFO levels of the otherwise crystalline humins, methyl levulinate (ML), another side-stream from the same sugar dehydration process, is blended to the former compound at 25 wt.-%; a ratio comparable to that actually produced in many dehydration processes.Various fuel properties of interest, including elemental composition, heating value, density, ignition quality, acid number, flash point, pour point, carbon residue, sediment, water and ash content are…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Experimental Study on the Potential of Higher Octane Number Fuels for Low Load Partially Premixed Combustion

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Kyle van der Waart, Bart Somers, Philip de Goey
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The optimal fuel for partially premixed combustion (PPC) is considered to be a gasoline boiling range fuel with an octane number around 70. Higher octane number fuels are considered problematic with low load and idle conditions. In previous studies mostly the intake air temperature did not exceed 30 °C. Possibly increasing intake air temperatures could extend the load range.In this study primary reference fuels (PRFs), blends of iso-octane and n-heptane, with octane numbers of 70, 80, and 90 are tested in an adapted commercial diesel engine under partially premixed combustion mode to investigate the potential of these higher octane number fuels in low load and idle conditions.During testing combustion phasing and intake air temperature are varied to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics under low load and idle conditions. The results show that PRF70, 80 and 90 present stable combustion when an intake temperature higher than 60 °C is used at low load and idle conditions. The coefficient of variations of the gross indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEPgross) is below 3% and 4.5% at low…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available