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Using Finite Element Analysis and Metallographic Analysis to Understand Field Forces on an Industrial Head Gasket

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Mike Reeves
Automated Analysis Corp.-Coy Herald
Published 1995-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A major concern in head gasket reliability of an industrial diesel engine is flange cracking. This paper will discuss head gasket flange cracking and the head gasket joint environment as they relate to an industrial diesel engine head gasket joint. The paper will discuss metallographic and finite element analysis of head gasket field failures. The metallographic analysis will discuss the evaluation of production, assembled, laboratory tested, and field tested gaskets. The above will give head gasket designers and engine manufacturers insight into the industrial head gasket joint environment. The metallographic work will explain the method of creating micro sections as well as micro section measurements to aid in the understanding of the head gasket loading. By making the metallographic analysis of the production, assembled and laboratory tested gaskets and comparing the results to the field tested gaskets, one can begin to develop a field failure theory for flange cracking for a particular engine application. Likewise, by using finite element analysis, one can study component deformation and component interaction as they relate to the head gasket…
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Quality Improvement: An Investment in the Business

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-C. J. Hayes
Published 1986-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The under-utilization of “people” assets is generally commonplace. Through quality improvement efforts, time and money are invested into people, as well as machines. This discussion centers around the concept, techniques and results from quality improvement efforts.
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Establishing, Implementing and Evaluating a Parts Reusability Program

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Roger S. Johnson
Published 1986-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses: the needs and benefits of a parts reusability program; the elements required for establishing a parts reusability program; how to determine the reusability limits of a part; the implementation of a parts reusability program; and how to evaluate a parts reusability program.This paper is written and intended for market analysts and engineers working in service organizations worldwide.
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Caterpillar's Folded Core Radiator

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Raymond D. Stratton
Published 1986-04-01 by SAE International in United States
THE CATERPILLAR FOLDED CORE RADIATOR IS A NEW RADIATOR FOR VEHICLES AND STATIONARY ENGINE APPLICATIONS. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DESIGN ARE TO GIVE THE USER AN INCREASED VALUE COOLING SYSTEM BY REDUCING RADIATOR REPAIR COSTS AND IMPROVING AIR-SIDE PLUGGING RESISTANCE. AS WELL AS PROVIDE THE VEHICLE DESIGNER WITH INCREASED APPLICATION DESIGN FLEXIBILITY. THIS IS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WHILE MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE AND LIFE GOALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL RADIATOR. THE FOLDED CORE IS A MODULAR DESIGN HAVING THE MODULES INSTALLED AT AN ANGLE TO THE FAN AIR STREAM RESULTING IN THE FOLDED APPEARANCE. COMMON MODULE SIZES ARE USED ACROSS THE MANY RADIATOR APPLICATIONS REDUCING INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS AT THE ASSEMBLY PLANT AND PARTS DEPOTS AND INCREASING INDIVIDUAL MODULE PRODUCTION VOLUME.THIS RADIATOR DESIGN IS REVIEWED FROM CONCEPT TO PRODUCTION.
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Computer Aided Torsional Vibration Analysis

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Dennis A. Virkler
Published 1986-04-01 by SAE International in United States
TVA is an interactive computer program which performs a Torsional Vibration Analysis on lumped mass systems which contain torsional degrees of freedom. This program has two fundamental analyses. The first is Normal Modes which analyzes the natural unforced undamped behavior of the system to give natural frequencies and mode shapes. The second analysis is Frequency Response which analyzes the forced response of a damped system to give response results. TVA is used to analyze engine-auxilary equipment systems as well as vehicle drivetrain systems.
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The Caterpillar 416 Backhoe Loader

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Craig W. Riediger
Published 1986-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Caterpillar recently introduced its first backhoe loader - a significant extension to the existing product line of construction equipment. It is a highly versatile machine entering a well-developed marketplace. This paper describes design considerations, the development program, and vehicle design features associated with the 416 Backhoe Loader.
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A Review of Sampling Condition Effects on Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PNA) from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Joseph M. Perez
Coordinating Research Council-Margaret E. Griffing
Published 1985-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Reports published by Gulf R&D Co. and Battelle Columbus Laboratories under contract to the Coordinating Research Council's APRAC project group CAPE-24 were reviewed. Both studies failed to verify the accuracy of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) emission measurements from heavy-duty diesel engines. Thermal decomposition and chemical reactions of the PNA occur in raw exhaust at temperatures above 500°F. Therefore, pipes which transfer exhaust to dilution tunnels can significantly reduce the apparent emission values. Dilution tunnel conditions have comparatively little effect on PNA measurements. However, vapor traps are required behind particle filters to assure complete collection of 4-ring PNA compounds. Guidelines are presented for controlling and testing sampling systems for accurate PNA emission measurements.
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Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine/Fuels Combustion Performance and Emissions-A Cooperative Research Program

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-D. H. Gerke, J. M. Perez
Mobil Research & Development Corp.-E. G. Barry, L. J. McCabe
Published 1985-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A cooperative research program has been completed evaluating the impact of fuel composition (volatility, aromatics and sulfur) on the combustion and emissions performance of a Caterpillar 3406B turbo-charged diesel engine, which is representative of diesel truck engines of the late 1980s. Tests included both steady-state and transient operation measuring regulated and unregulated emissions. The fuel set was blended using only commercially available refinery stocks typical of those which could be considered for use in distillate fuel. The compositions of the blends were selected so that direct measurements of the individual effects of 10% and 90% distillation temperatures, aromatic content, and sulfur content could be made independently.Engine combustion performance data indicated that all fuels operated satisfactorily; aromatic content was as high as 50% and cetane number as low as 39. Further, the cetane number did not predict the engine measured ignition delay in this program.In steady-state emission tests, the data indicate that changes in the volatility or aromatic content had no substantial effect on particulates, smoke emissions, or gaseous emissions except NOx. Increasing aromatic content increased…
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New Caterpillar Wheel Loaders - 916, 926

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-O. A. Scheffler, Robert E. Moss
Published 1985-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Two new Caterpillar Wheel Loaders have been developed in the 1.2 cubic meter (1.5 cubic yd.) and 1.5 cubic meter (2.0 cubic yd.) bucket capacity categories. This paper provides a review of the design objectives and summarizes the design features included to meet worldwide manufacturing and marketing requirements.
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In-Place-Dynamic Sound Power Test Method

Caterpillar Tractor Co.-Walker H. Flint
Published 1985-05-15 by SAE International in United States
ISO and SAE static sound power test methods are currently used for construction machinery. The European Economic Community sound committee has been developing a drive-by or simulated work cycle test method using a hemispherical array of microphones. The EEC method is inconsistent due to the changing test surface (moist sand) and the variables of outdoor testing: temperature, wind, and precipitation. The in-place-dynamic test method described provides a disciplined way to evaluate machines with moving track or wheels and operating hydraulic systems. The machine is slightly elevated, resting on stands, so that the wheels are off the ground or the tractor weight is off the track chain. Data obtained from track-type tractor, track-type loader, and wheel loader machines supports the validity of using an indoor, in-place-dynamic test instead of a moving, outdoor test. Results also show that using sound intensity instrumentation permits the option of testing in an untreated, indoor facility.
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