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Combined Sizing and EMS Optimization of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Powertrains for Commercial Vehicles

AVL Powertrain UK Ltd.-Tommi Jokela, Athanasios Iraklis, Bill Kim, Bo Gao
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
During the last years, fuel-cell-based powertrains have been attracting a lot of attention from commercial vehicle manufacturers for reducing vehicle-related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to Battery-Electric Vehicles (BEV), fuel-cell-based powertrains has the strong advantage of dealing with range-anxiety, which is crucial for commercial vehicle with high duty-cycle energy requirements. Amongst the different fuel-cell types, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cells (PEMFC) have the greatest potential for utilization in automotive applications, due to their relatively high technical readiness, market availability and utilization of hydrogen (H2) fuel. In addition, Solid Oxide Fuel-Cells (SOFC) show good potential due to existing re-fueling infrastructure for light hydrocarbon fuels or heavier hydrocarbon fuels (e.g. diesel). This study focuses on the application of both PEMFCs and diesel-fueled SOFCs in Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) architectures for commercial vehicles. Delivery vans in the 2.5 t-3.5 t weight range, coach buses and 3-axle tractor-type long-haul trucks are considered energy-driven types and highly suitable for fuel-cell systems, which offer high energy density values. Due to the high number of vehicle application types and system configurations, and…
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Effect of Compression Ring Elastodynamics Behaviour upon Blowby and Power Loss

AVL Powertrain UK Ltd.-Ioannis Karagiannis
Aston Martin Lagonda-Alan Frendt
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is subject to increasing pressure to reduce the CO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines. Improvements may be achieved in a number of ways. The parasitic losses throughout the engine cycle emanate from friction in all engine contact conjunctions in addition to pumping losses. In particular one main contributory conjunction is the piston ring pack assembly. At low engine speeds, the contribution of friction to the total losses within the engine is increased significantly compared with the thermodynamic losses. Additionally, the sealing capability of the ring is crucial in determining the power output of the engine with any loss of sealing contributing to power loss, as well as blowby. Most reported studies on compression ring-cylinder conjunction do not take into account complex ring in-plane and out-of-plane elastodynamics. Hitherto, there has not been a numerical methodology which integrates tribology of an elastic compression ring, subject to modal behaviour in a coupled solution.This paper discusses the inclusion of transient ring elastodynamics of the top compression ring, interacting with blowby effects within…
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Stop-Start Micro Hybrid: An Estimation of Automatic Engine Stop Duration in Real World Usage

AVL Powertrain UK Ltd.-Aditya Dhand, Baekhyun Cho, Alan Walker, Alastair Muncey
Ford Motor Company-Daniel Kok, Eckhard Karden, Thomas Hochkirchen
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Legislative emissions requirements, customer expectation and environmental concerns are driving the introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technologies. In the European market, where diesel powertrain technology has high penetration, Micro Hybrid technology, featuring engine stop/start plus regenerative charging, is attractive due to system cost versus CO2 emission benefits. The availability of the engine stop/start feature in real world usage depends on the control logic taking account of, for example, safety, comfort or other factors. The research reported here involved developing tools to analyze the duration of automatic engine stop events in real world usage taking account of the situations where automatic engine stop would be unavailable. These tools help determine the durability requirements for key system components, in particular the battery, and estimation of the likely fuel savings as a function of the system calibration.
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