This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Combined Sizing and EMS Optimization of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Powertrains for Commercial Vehicles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
During the last years, fuel-cell-based powertrains have been attracting a lot of attention from commercial vehicle manufacturers for reducing vehicle-related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to Battery-Electric Vehicles (BEV), fuel-cell-based powertrains has the strong advantage of dealing with range-anxiety, which is crucial for commercial vehicle with high duty-cycle energy requirements. Amongst the different fuel-cell types, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cells (PEMFC) have the greatest potential for utilization in automotive applications, due to their relatively high technical readiness, market availability and utilization of hydrogen (H2) fuel. In addition, Solid Oxide Fuel-Cells (SOFC) show good potential due to existing re-fueling infrastructure for light hydrocarbon fuels or heavier hydrocarbon fuels (e.g. diesel). This study focuses on the application of both PEMFCs and diesel-fueled SOFCs in Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) architectures for commercial vehicles. Delivery vans in the 2.5 t-3.5 t weight range, coach buses and 3-axle tractor-type long-haul trucks are considered energy-driven types and highly suitable for fuel-cell systems, which offer high energy density values. Due to the high number of vehicle application types and system configurations, and due to the complexity of such hybrid architectures, powertrain design loops can be very time-consuming and model-based systems engineering becomes necessary. This study proposes a combined model-based component sizing process with Energy Management Strategy (EMS) optimization for determining powertrain performance and total system costs. In the suggested approach, the initially considered design space is reduced to a lower number of feasible power source combinations based on initial estimations, fixed component efficiencies and vehicle performance requirements. An optimization algorithm is then utilized for all the feasible combinations on different drive-cycles, i.e. the time-based WLTP drive-cycle for delivery vans and modified distance-based VECTO drive-cycles for coach buses and long-haul trucks, with more detailed component performance characteristics, for vehicle sub-categories defined based on the market in the United Kingdom. The suggested design approach for FCHEV powertrain architectures is analyzed and presented.
CitationJokela, T., Iraklis, A., Kim, B., and Gao, B., "Combined Sizing and EMS Optimization of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Powertrains for Commercial Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0387, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0387.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
- European Environment Agency, "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport," Available online at: https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-greenhouse-gases/transport-emissions-of-greenhouse-gases-10.
- Transport & Environment, “Too Big to Ignore - Truck CO2 Emissions in 2030," Available online at: https://www.transportenvironment.org/publications/too-big-ignore-%E2%80%93-truck-co2-emissions-2030.
- Rechberger, J., Reissig, M., and Lawlor, V., “SOFC EV Range Extender Systems for Biofuels,” . In: Der Antrieb von morgen 2018. (Wiesbaden, Springer Vieweg, 2018), 51-61.
- Hasegawa, T., Imanishi, H., Nada, M., and Ikogi, Y., “Development of the Fuel Cell System in the Mirai FCV,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1185, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1185.
- Hasegawa, Y., Aoyagi S., and Hibiki S., "Idle Control Device for Fuel Cell Vehicle," U.S. Patent 6, 484,075, issued November 19, 2002.
- Corbo, P., Migliardini, F., and Veneri, O., Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles (Springer Science & Business Media, 2011).
- Ehsani, M., Gao, Y., Longo, S., and Ebrahimi, K., Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles (CRC Press, 2018).
- SMMT, "SMMT Vehicle Data - LCV Registrations," Available online at: https://www.smmt.co.uk/vehicle-data/lcv-registrations/.
- SMMT, "SMMT Vehicle Data - Bus and Coach Registrations," Available online at: https://www.smmt.co.uk/vehicle-data/bus-and-coach-registrations/.
- SMMT, "SMMT Vehicle Data - Heavy Goods Vehicles Registrations," https://www.smmt.co.uk/vehicle-data/heavy-goods-vehicles-registrations/.
- Luz, R., Rexeis, M., Hausberger, S., Jajcevic, D., et al., "Development and Validation of a Methodology for Monitoring and Certification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles through Vehicle Simulation," Final Report, TU Graz, TuV Nord, and TNO. Report No. I 7, 2014, 14.
- Hu, X., Johannesson, L., Murgovski, N., and Egardt, B., “Longevity-Conscious Dimensioning and Power Management of the Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Bus,” Applied Energy 137:913-924, 2015.
- Lutsey, N., Wallace, J., Brodrick, C.J., Dwyer, H.A. et al., “Modeling Stationary Power for Heavy-Duty Trucks: Engine Idling Vs. Fuel Cell APUs,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1479, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1479.
- Kulikov, K. I., Schurov N. I., and Langeman E.G., "Structural Analysis of Vehicle's Hybrid Power System Based on Fuel Cell," in 2018 19th International Conference of Young Specialists on Micro/Nanotechnologies and Electron Devices (EDM), 1-4, 2018, IEEE.
- Mohiuddin, A.K.M., Basran, N., and Khan, A.A., "Modelling and Validation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)," in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 290, 1, 012026, IOP Publishing, 2018.
- Thomas, C.E., “Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 34(15):6005-6020, 2009.
- Rajashekara, K., MacBain J. A., and James Grieve M., "Evaluation of SOFC Hybrid Systems for Automotive Propulsion Applications," in Industry Applications Conference, 2006. 41st IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE, 3, 1593-1597, 2006, IEEE.
- Beney, A., "Investigation into the Heat Up Time for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Automotive Applications," Ph.D. diss., 2018.
- The Engineering Toolbox, "Fuels - Higher and Lower Calorific Values," Available online at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/fuels-higher-calorific-values-d_169.html.
- Gonzalez-Longatt, F., Hernandez, A., Guillen, F., and Fortoul, C., "Load Following Function of Fuel Cell Plant in Distributed Environment," in International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 05), 2005.
- Xu, L., Yang, F., Li, J., Ouyang, M. et al., “Real Time Optimal Energy Management Strategy Targeting at Minimizing Daily Operation Cost for a Plug-In Fuel Cell City Bus,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 37(20):15380-15392, 2012.
- Riemersma, I. and Mock P., "Too Low to Be True? How to Measure Fuel Consumption and CO₂ Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles, Today and in the Future," 2017.
- Samsun, R.C., Krupp, C., Tschauder, A., Peters, R., and Stolten, D., “Electrical Start-Up for Diesel Fuel Processing in a Fuel-Cell-Based Auxiliary Power Unit,” Journal of power sources 302:315-323, 2016.
- Bossel, U., “Rapid Startup SOFC Modules,” Energy Procedia 28:48-56, 2012.