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Railway Fastener Positioning Method Based on Improved Census Transform

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Northeast Electric Power University, China-Chunming Wu, Hongkuo Zheng
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0011
Published 2018-10-31 by SAE International in United States
In view of the fact that the current positioning methods of railway fasteners are easily affected by illumination intensity, bright spots, and shadows, a positioning method with relative grayscale invariance is proposed. The median filter is used to remove the noise in order to reduce the adverse effects on the subsequent processing results, and the baffle seat edge features are enhanced by improved Census transform. The mean-shift clustering algorithm is used to classify the edges to weaken the interference by short lines. Finally, the Hough transform is used to quickly extract the linear feature of the baffle seat edge and achieve the exact position of the fastener with the prior knowledge. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately locate and have good adaptability under different illumination conditions, and the position accuracy is increased by 4.3% and 8%, respectively, in sunny and rainy days.
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Carbon Monoxide Density Pattern Mapping from Recreational Boat Testing

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Collision Safety Engineering, L.C., USA-Mark Warner
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0008
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas can cause health risks for users of recreational boats and watercraft. Activities such as waterskiing, wakeboarding, tubing, and wakesurfing primarily utilize gasoline engine-driven vessels which produce CO as a combustion by-product. Recent watersports trends show an increase in popularity of activities which take place closer to the stern of the boat (such as wakesurfing) as compared to traditional waterskiing and wakeboarding. Advancements in gas emissions treatment in marine engine exhaust system designs have reduced risks for CO exposure in some boats. This article presents results from on-water testing of three recreational boats, reports average and maximum values of CO levels under various conditions, and exhibits mapping of the density of CO relative to the stern of the test vessels.
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The Placement of Digitized Objects in a Point Cloud as a Photogrammetric Technique

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

ARCCA, Inc.-Shawn Harrington, Gabriel Lebak
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0007
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
The frequency of video-capturing collision events from surveillance systems are increasing in reconstruction analyses. The video that has been provided to the investigator may not always include a clear perspective of the relevant area of interest. For example, surveillance video of an incident may have captured a pre- or post-incident perspective that, while failing to capture the precise moment when the pedestrian was struck by a vehicle, still contains valuable information that can be used to assist in reconstructing the incident. When surveillance video is received, a quick and efficient technique to place the subject object or objects into a three-dimensional environment with a known rate of error would add value to the investigation. In addition, once the objects have been placed into the three-dimensional environment, the investigator would then be able to observe the physical evidence and environment from any perspective, including viewing and measuring what cannot be seen in the video perspective. In this research, the proposed photogrammetric technique of visually placing objects within three-dimensional laser scans will be evaluated. This research aims…
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Analysis of Single-Vehicle Accidents in Japan Involving Elderly Drivers

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0002
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The Japanese population is aging rapidly, raising the number of traffic accidents involving elderly drivers. In Japan, single-vehicle accidents are a serious problem because they often result in fatalities. We analyzed these accidents by vehicle type, age group, and driving area. To examine the risk of accidents of the elderly drivers, their driving frequency needs to be considered, which is less. Moreover, it is difficult to know the actual distance driven by them. Therefore, in this article, based on the assumption that the number of rear-end collisions is a proxy for the traffic volume, we used the number of such collisions as a control for the driving frequency. It was found that in single-vehicle accidents, elderly drivers were at higher risk than other age groups, especially when driving light motor vehicles (K-type vehicles) in non-urban areas. A possible explanation is the higher frequency with which the elderly drive K-type vehicles in areas where there are few other vehicles on the road.
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Numerical Prediction of Various Failure Modes in Spotweld Steel Material

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Wichita State University-Sachin Patil, Hamid Lankarani
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0003
Published 2018-05-11 by SAE International in United States
Crash simulation is targeted mainly carried out by the collision regulations FMVSS simulation to identify problems in vehicle structures. A modern car structure consist of several thousand weld-type connections, and failure in these connections plays an important role for the crashworthiness of the vehicle. Therefore accurate modeling of these connections is important for the automotive industry in order to improve Vehicle collision characteristics. In pursuit of this key requirement, we introduced a proper methodology for the development detailed weld model to study structural response of the weld when the applied load range is beyond the yield strength. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of spot welded joints are developed using the LS-Dyna FE code. In this process the force estimation model of spot welds is explained. The results from this paper shows good agreement between the simulations and the tests. Therefore, spot weld model obtained from this study should be considered for applications in crash analysis.
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Analysis of Berla iVe Acquisitions of Vehicle Speed Data from Ford Sync Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Biomechanics Analysis-Robert Anderson
Collision and Injury Dynamics, Inc.-Wesley Vandiver
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1442
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Many modern automobiles’ infotainment/navigation systems store vehicle telematics and user-supplied infotainment data. This data is useful in a wide variety of analyses but is not available through traditional OEM tools. The necessity to access the infotainment module data for forensic analysis can be satisfied by utilizing the Berla iVe system. Similar to CDR/EDR technology, Berla iVe is a hardware and software tool that is used to acquire and analyze stored automotive data. However, CDR/EDR systems are generally developed in partnership with manufacturers or OEM suppliers. Berla iVe is a privately developed forensic system analogous to traditional forensic tools used to interrogate computer hard drives and smartphones. The technology is privately developed and tested. The data is then parsed using recognized forensics practices.This research was focused on assessing the accuracy of speed data recorded in certain modules and the resulting translations reported by the Berla iVe system. While a number of manufacturers’ vehicles store a variety of infotainment data, this project was limited to Ford Sync Generation 2 (SG2) and Generation 3 (SG3) systems. A series…
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Further Validation of Equations for Motorcycle Lean on a Curve

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Kineticorp LLC-Nathan A. Rose, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0529
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Previous studies have reported and validated equations for calculating the lean angle required for a motorcycle and rider to traverse a curved path at a particular speed. In 2015, Carter, Rose, and Pentecost reported physical testing with motorcycles traversing curved paths on an oval track on a pre-marked range in a relatively level parking lot. Several trends emerged in this study. First, while theoretical lean angle equations prescribe a single lean angle for a given lateral acceleration, there was considerable scatter in the real-world lean angles employed by motorcyclists for any given lateral acceleration level. Second, the actual lean angle was nearly always greater than the theoretical lean angle.This prior study was limited in that it only examined the motorcycle lean angle at the apex of the curves. The research reported here extends the previous study by examining the accuracy of the lean angle formulas throughout the curves. The degree to which these equations can be used to model the development of lean as the rider enters a curve is evaluated. The prior study was…
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Detection of Lane-Changing Behavior Using Collaborative Representation Classifier-Based Sensor Fusion

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Michigan-Dearborn, USA-Jun Gao, Yi Lu Murphey
Wuhan University of Technology, China-Honghui Zhu
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0010
Published 2018-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Sideswipe accidents occur primarily when drivers attempt an improper lane change, drift out of lane, or the vehicle loses lateral traction. In this article, a fusion approach is introduced that utilizes data from two differing modality sensors (a front-view camera and an onboard diagnostics (OBD) sensor) for the purpose of detecting driver’s behavior of lane changing. For lane change detection, both feature-level fusion and decision-level fusion are examined by using a collaborative representation classifier (CRC). Computationally efficient detection features are extracted from distances to the detected lane boundaries and vehicle dynamics signals. In the feature-level fusion, features generated from two differing modality sensors are merged before classification, while in the decision-level fusion, the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is used to combine the classification outcomes from two classifiers, each corresponding to one sensor. The results indicated that the feature-level fusion outperformed the decision-level fusion, and the introduced fusion approach using a CRC performs significantly better in terms of detection accuracy, in comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers.
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Validation of Crush Energy Calculation Methods for Use in Accident Reconstructions by Finite Element Analysis

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

DENSO Corporation, Japan-Hisashi Kinoshita
Nagoya University, Japan-Shusuke Numata, Koji Mizuno, Daisuke Ito, Dai Okumura
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0009
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The crush energy is a key parameter to determine the delta-V in accident reconstructions. Since an accurate car crush profile can be obtained from 3D scanners, this research aims at validating the methods currently used in calculating crush energy from a crush profile. For this validation, a finite element (FE) car model was analyzed using various types of impact conditions to investigate the theory of energy-based accident reconstruction. Two methods exist to calculate the crush energy: the work based on the barrier force and the work based on force calculated by the vehicle acceleration times the vehicle mass. We show that the crush energy calculated from the barrier force was substantially larger than the internal energy calculated from the FE model. Whereas the crush energy calculated from the vehicle acceleration was comparable to the internal energy of the FE model. In full frontal impact simulations, the energy of approach factor (EAF) has a linear relation with the residual crush, which had been validated in previous experimental studies. In our study using FE analysis, we found…
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Wheel Chock Key Design Elements and Geometrical Profile for Truck Vehicle Restraint

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et sécurité du travail-Laurent Giraud
Modular Motion Corporation-Jacques Lemire
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0006
Published 2018-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Wheel chocks are rather simple compliant mechanisms for stabilizing vehicles at rest. However, chocks must be carefully designed given the complex interaction between the chock and the tire/suspension system. Despite their importance for safety, literature is surprisingly limited in terms of what makes a wheel chock efficient. Using simple but reliable quasi-static mechanical models, this study identifies mechanical requirements that help to avoid a number of failure modes associated with many existing wheel chocks. Given that chock grounding is not always possible, a chock’s maximum restraining capacity is only obtained when the wheel is completely supported by the chock. A generic chock profile is proposed to achieve this objective while mitigating undesirable failure modes. The profile is based on fundamental mechanical principles and no assumption is made on the load interaction between the chock and the wheel. A more specific clothoid chock profile is further proposed to minimize the tire dynamic contact force with the chock and its rate of variation when engaging a chock in a dynamic situation. The proposed chock design should be…
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