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Under-Body Blast Mitigation: Stand-Alone Seat Safety Activation System

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Paradigm Research and Engineering-Mehmet H. Uras
TARDEC-Sebastian Karwaczynski
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0556
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This work is based on a current project funded by the United States Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and is being conducted with the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ground Systems Survivability (GSS) Team and Paradigm Research and Engineering. The focus of this project is to develop an advanced and novel sensing and activation strategy for Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems, Air Bags and other systems that may require activation. The overriding technical challenge is to activate these systems to effectively protect the Soldier during blast events in addition to Crash, Rollover and Other Injury Causing events. These activations of Pyrotechnic systems must occur in fractions of milliseconds as compared to typical automotive crashes. By investigating systems outside of typical accelerometer based applications and activations, the potential exists to exploit systems that require little power, are self-contained and provide the required output for the desired result. As such Constant-Flux Magnetostrictive Sensors shall be evaluated in a self-contained environment to provide the output during these events. By activating the Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems and…
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Design, Development and Testing of an Improved Stock Car Driver's Window Net Mounting System

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

NASCAR-John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, Don Krueger
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0508
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
First required in 1970 in NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) the driver's window safety net or driver's window net has continually evolved and improved. The driver's window net has played an important role in protecting race car drivers from injury.Driver's window nets were originally used to help keep the driver's upper torso, head and arms inside the interior of the race vehicle during crashes. As restraint systems were improved, the role of the driver's window net in stock car racing has transitioned to keeping flailing hands inside the interior of the car while also serving as a shield to protect the driver from intruding debris.This paper describes three separate window net and window net mounting tests and the use of these tests to design an improved window net mounting system. Also shown are test results of previously used window net mounting systems and the improved NASCAR system which has been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup, Nationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series vehicles.
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Influence of Feature Lines of Vehicle Hood Styling on Headform Kinematics and Injury Evaluation in Car-to-Pedestrian Impact Simulations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Tsinghua Univ.-Qing Zhou, Yong Xia, Jisi Tang
Tsinghua Univ., Univ. of Virginia-Bingbing Nie
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0518
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle hood styling has significant influence on headform kinematics in assessment tests of pedestrian impact protection performance. Pedestrian headform kinematics on vehicle front-end models with different hood styling characteristics is analyzed based on finite element modeling. More elevated feature lines near hood boundary and the following continuous hood surface towards fender will result in a different headform motion. It can lead to larger deformation space, more rotation and earlier rebound of the headform impactor, which will benefit the head impact protection performance. In addition, hood geometry characteristics such as hood angle and curvature have effects on structural stiffness. Therefore, inclusion of considerations on pedestrian head protection into the vehicle hood styling design stage may lead to a more effective and efficient engineering design process on headform impact analysis.
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Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Blunt Impact

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Ford Motor Co.-Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0486
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In the present study, transfer equations relating the responses of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to the mid-sized male Hybrid III test dummy (HIII50) under matched, or nearly-identical, loading conditions were developed via math modeling. Specifically, validated finite element (FE) models of the Ford Human Body Model (FHBM) and the HIII50 were used to generate sets of matched cases (i.e., 256 frontal impact cases involving different impact speeds, severities, and PMHS age). Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting age-dependent FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was conducted for five different body regions: head, neck, chest, femur, and tibia. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (PHMS relative to HIII50) were consistent with the limited available test-based results.
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Validation of Event Data Recorders in Side-Impact Crash Tests

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Virginia Tech-Ada Tsoi, Nicholas Johnson, H. Gabler
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0503
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This study evaluated the accuracy of 75 Event Data Recorders (EDRs) extracted from model year 2010-2012 Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, and Toyota vehicles subjected to side-impact moving deformable barrier crash tests. The test report and vehicle-mounted accelerometers provided reference values to assess the EDR reported change in lateral velocity (delta-v), seatbelt buckle status, and airbag deployment status.Our results show that EDRs underreported the reference lateral delta-v in the vast majority of cases, mimicking the errors and conclusions found in some longitudinal EDR accuracy studies. For maximum lateral delta-v, the average arithmetic error was −3.59 kph (−13.8%) and the average absolute error was 4.05 kph (15.9%). All EDR reports that recorded a seatbelt buckle status data element correctly recorded the buckle status at both the driver and right front passenger locations. For equipped vehicles that reported side torso, side curtain, and frontal airbag deployment information, all vehicles recorded the correct status. Although only model year 2013 and later EDRs must meet Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 Part 563, seatbelt buckle status and frontal…
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Modeling and Simulation of Intelligent Driving with Trajectory Planning and Tracking

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

R&D Center, China FAW Group-Bin Liu, Bingxu Shang, Shaobo Qiu
State Key Lab of Automotive Simulation & Control, Jilin Univ-Mengxun Wu, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Hao Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0108
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a novel modeling and simulation environment developed under Matlab/Simulink with friendly and intuitive graphic user interfaces, aimed to enable math-based virtual development and test of intelligent driving systems. Six typical driving maneuvers are first proposed, which are further abstracted into two atomic sub-maneuvers: lane following and lane change, as any maneuvers can be the combinations of these two. A generic trajectory planning and path tracking control algorithm are developed to deal with the generality and commonality of the lane change function with optimization among safety, comfort and efficiency in performing the lane change maneuver. Some typical simulations are conducted with results demonstrating the practical usefulness, efficiency and convenience in using this proposed tool.
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An Unbiased Estimate of the Relative Crash Risk of Cell Phone Conversation while Driving an Automobile

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Wayne State Univ.-Richard Young
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0446
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A key aim of research into cell phone tasks is to obtain an unbiased estimate of their relative risk (RR) for crashes. This paper re-examines five RR estimates of cell phone conversation in automobiles. The Toronto and Australian studies estimated an RR near 4, but used subjective estimates of driving and crash times. The OnStar, 100-Car, and a recent naturalistic study used objective measures of driving and crash times and estimated an RR near 1, not 4 - a major discrepancy. Analysis of data from GPS trip studies shows that people were in the car only 20% of the time on any given prior day at the same clock time they were in the car on a later day. Hence, the Toronto estimate of driving time during control windows must be reduced from 10 to 2 min. Given a cell phone call rate about 7 times higher when in-car than out-of-car, and correcting for misclassification of some post-crash calls as pre-crash, the final required downward adjustment of the Toronto and Australian RR estimates is about…
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Self-Regulation Minimizes Crash Risk from Attentional Effects of Cognitive Load during Auditory-Vocal Tasks

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Wayne State Univ.-Richard Young
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0448
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving. The Utah data are next compared to those from a larger study that included visual-manual as well as auditory-vocal tasks. The Utah auditory-vocal tasks had negligible effects on response time compared to visual-manual…
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A Critical Assessment of Factors Affecting the Flammability of R-1234yf in a Frontal Collision

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

General Motors Co.-Bryan Styles, Jeffrey Santrock, Curtis Vincent, Michael Leffert, Narasimha Putcha
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0419
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
An evaluation methodology has been developed for assessing the suitability of R-1234yf in vehicles. This relates primarily to evaluating the flammability of R-1234yf in the engine compartment during a frontal collision. This paper will discuss the process followed in the methodology, the technical rationale for this process, and the results of the analysis.The specific types of analysis included in the methodology are: exhaust-system thermal characterization, computer simulated crash tests, actual crash tests, teardown and examination of crashed parts, and releases of refrigerant onto hot exhaust manifolds. Each type of analysis was logically ordered and combined to produce a comprehensive evaluation methodology.This methodology has been applied and demonstrates that R-1234yf is difficult to ignite when factors that occur in frontal crashes are simultaneously considered. Factors considered in this analysis include: crush and deformation of the vehicle structure, airflow in the engine compartment, exhaust system temperatures during different driving scenarios, and coolant release due to damage of the engine coolant system. Such findings support the conclusion of the Society of Automotive Engineers Cooperative Research Team (SAE CRP1234-4)…
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Tradeoffs in the Evaluation of Light Vehicle Pre-Collision Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Toyota Motor Engineering & Mfg NA Inc.-Rini Sherony
University of Michigan - UMTRI-David LeBlanc, Mark Gilbert, Stephen Stachowski
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0158
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Pre-collision systems (PCS) use forward-looking sensors to detect the location and motion of vehicles ahead and provide a sequence of actions to help the driver either avoid striking the rear-end of another vehicle or mitigate the severity of the crash. The actions include driver alerts, amplification of driver braking as distance decreases (dynamic brake support, DBS), and automatic braking if the driver has not acted or has not acted sufficiently (crash imminent braking, CIB).Recent efforts by various organizations have sought to define PCS objective test procedures and test equipment in support of consumer information programs and potential certification. This paper presents results and insights from conducting DBS and CIB tests on two production vehicles sold in the US. Eleven scenarios are used to assess the systems' performance. The two systems' performance shows that commercial systems can be quite different. Also demonstrated is the experience with test equipment, including a towable target that has been designed for resiliency and radar signature, a braking robot, and bumper guard.While improvements continue in evaluation procedures, the community may still…
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