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Low Cycle Fatigue and Ratcheting Behavior of SA333 Gr-6 Steel at 300°C Temperature

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, India-Girendra Kumar, Ashok Kumar
National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India-H.N. Bar
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0006
Published 2019-01-23 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this investigation is to study the cyclic deformation behavior of SA333 Gr-6 C-Mn steel at 300°C. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out at total strain amplitude between ±0.35 and ±1.25% at a constant strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1. Ratcheting tests were conducted at a various combination of mean stress and stress amplitude at a constant stress rate of 115 MPa s−1. The material SA333 Gr-6 steel exhibits cyclic hardening throughout its fatigue life. The material shows non-Masing behavior and deviation (δσo ) from Masing behavior increase with an increase in strain amplitude. Ratcheting strain accumulation increases, whereas ratcheting life decreases with an increase in mean stress or stress amplitude. With an increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, ratcheting rate also increases. The material shows hardening characteristic due to dynamic strain aging (DSA) phenomena.
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Evaluation of Weldability and Mechanical Properties in Resistance Spot Welding of Ultrahigh-Strength TRIP1100 Steel

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Isfahan University of Technology, Iran-Iman Hajiannia, Morteza Shamanian, Masoud Atapour
Islamic Azad University, Iran-Rouholah Ashiri
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0001
Published 2018-12-14 by SAE International in United States
To use steel in the automotive industry, it is essential to characterize its weldability and weldable current range. The resistance spot welding of ultrahigh-strength transformation-induced plasticity steel (TRIP1100 steel), which is a candidate for application in an autobody, is studied here. Identifying the weld lobe and the best welding parameters and studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of the spot welds of TRIP steel were done using metallurgical techniques, tensile-shear and cross-tension tests, and fractography and microhardness testing. A partial fracture analysis (stepwise tensile test) showed a crack initiated at the tip of the notch. The best range for welding current was found to be 10-12 kA. The diameter of the weld nugget increased up to 5√t; however, it was found that at least 15% increase in the diameter of the weld nugget can result in a more favorable failure. The ductility ratio was found to be less than 0.5 for ultrahigh-strength steel. At the welding currents of 11 and 12 kA, the desired ductility ratio was achieved.
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Simulation of the Effect of Altitude and Rotational Speed on Transient Temperatures of Rotating Components

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

FCA US LLC, USA-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
OPTUMATICS, LLC, Egypt-AbdelRahman Hekal, Muhannad Hendy
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0003
Published 2018-11-13 by SAE International in United States
During vehicle development process, it is required to estimate potential thermal risk to vehicle components. Several authors have addressed this topic in earlier studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. For evaluation of potential thermal issues, it is desired to estimate the component temperature profile for a given duty cycle. Therefore, the temperature and exposure time at each temperature have to be estimated for each vehicle duty cycle. The duty cycle represents the customer usage of the vehicle for a variety of vehicle speeds and loadings. In this article, we focus on thermal simulation of rotating components such as prop shaft, drive shaft, and half shaft boots. Though these components temperatures can be measured in drive cell or road trips, the instrumentation is usually a complicated task. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they either require physical contact or cannot withstand high-temperature environment in the vehicle underhood or underbody. In this article, a numerical transient thermal analysis for a rotating shaft in the presence of a radiation heat source is presented. In…
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Study of Temperature Distribution and Parametric Optimization during FSW of AA6082 Using Statistical Approaches

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, India-Shubham Verma, Joy Prakash Misra, Meenu Gupta
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0005
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States
In this article, Al-Mg-Si-Mn alloy (AA6082) is butt joined by employing friction stir welding (FSW). The mechanical and metallurgical properties of joints are analyzed by conducting tensile and microhardness testing, respectively. To measure the temperature at different locations, eight thermocouples (L-shaped k-type) are placed at equal distance from the centerline. Least square method attempts to calculate the temperature at the centerline of joints. The process parameters are also optimized using Taguchi’s five-level experimental design. The optimum process parameters are determined, employing ultimate tensile strength (UTS) as a response parameter. A statistical test “analysis of variance” is used to check the adequacy of the model. It has been observed that rotational speed and feed rate are the predominant factors for UTS and microhardness. Optical microscopic and electron backscatter diffraction analyses are carried out to obtain the macrostructure and microstructure of joints.
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Parameter Sensitivity and Process Time Reduction for Friction Element Welding of 6061-T6 Aluminum to 1500 MPa Press-Hardened Steel

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Clemson University Department of Mechanical Engineering, USA-Saheem Absar, Hongseok Choi, Xin Zhao
Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research, USA-Laine Mears
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0004
Published 2018-12-14 by SAE International in United States
Conventional fusion joining techniques pervasive in the automotive industry are unable to effectively join aluminum and steel. To solve this problem, a technique termed friction element welding (FEW) has been developed, which is able to join any nonferrous top sheet material to a base steel layer, independent of the base layer strength. FEW works on the same principles as friction welding, as a steel element is pushed and rotated against a nonferrous top sheet to create frictional energy which softens and flows the material around the fastener shaft and under the fastener head, exposing the steel below. The element then contacts the steel and bonds through traditional friction welding. FEW is a four-step process (penetration, cleaning, welding, compression), with two to four parameters (endload, spindle speed, displacement transition, time transition) controlling each step. This research examines the parameter sensitivity of the FEW process in the cleaning, welding, and compression steps with an emphasis on reducing process time while maintaining joint strength. Joint strength is evaluated through transverse shear, cross tension, and fatigue transverse shear. It…
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A Study on Lightweight Design of Automotive Front Rails Using Tailored Blanks by Nonlinear Structural Optimization

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

AK Steel Corporation, USA-Jianyong Liang, Jonathan Powers, Scott Stevens
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0002
Published 2018-11-07 by SAE International in United States
Tailored blanks offer great lightweighting opportunities for automotive industry and were applied on the front rails of a sedan in this research. To achieve the most efficient material usage, all the front rail parts were tailored into multiple sheets with the gauge of each sheet defined as a design variable for optimization. The equivalent static loads (ESL) method was adopted for structural optimization and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) moderate overlap frontal crash as the nonlinear analysis load case. The torsion and bending stiffness of the sedan body in white (BIW) were set as design constraints. The occupant compartment intrusion in IIHS moderate overlap front crash was set as design objective to be minimized. The optimal thickness configuration for the tailored front rail designs was obtained through ESL optimization for multiple mass saving targets. The optimal thickness configuration for tailored front rails was updated in full vehicle crash model, and IIHS moderate overlap frontal crash analysis was conducted again to validate the results from ESL optimization. The section force and crash energy absorption…
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