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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Determination of Carbon Footprint using LCA Method for Straight Used Cooking Oil as a Fuel in HGVs

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Biomotive Fuels Ltd-Jim Ebner
University of Leeds-Hu Li, Peipei Ren, Laura Campbell, Buland Dizayi, Seyed Hadavi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1948
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve energy supply diversity and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, sustainable bio-fuels are strongly supported by EU and other governments in the world. While the feedstock of biofuels has caused a debate on the issue of sustainability, the used cooking oil (UCO) has become a preferred feedstock for biodiesel manufacturers. However, intensive energy consumption in the trans-esterification process during the UCO biodiesel production has significantly compromised the carbon reduction potentials and increased the cost of the UCO biodiesel. Moreover, the yield of biodiesel is only ∼90% and the remaining ∼10% feedstock is wasted as by-product glycerol. Direct use of UCO in diesel engines is a way to maximize its carbon saving potentials. This paper, as part of the EPID (Environmental and Performance Impact of Direct use of used cooking oil in 44 tonne trucks under real world driving conditions) project, presents the life cycle analysis of Straight UCO (SUCO) in terms of CO2 and energy consumption, compared with the UCO biodiesel and petroleum diesel. The UK carbon calculator developed by UK Department for…
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Gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) Technology for Low Temperature Emission Control

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Johnson Matthey Inc.-Hsiao-Lan Chang, Hai-Ying Chen, Kwangmo Koo, Jeffery Rieck, Philip Blakeman
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1509
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Stricter emission standards in the near future require not only a high conversion efficiency of the toxic air pollutants but also a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gases from automotive exhaust. Advanced engines with improved fuel efficiency can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions; their exhaust temperature is, however, also low. This consequently poses significant challenges to the emission control system demanding the catalysts to function at low temperatures both during the cold start period and under the normal engine operation conditions. In this paper, we will introduce a gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) technology developed for advanced stoichiometric-burn gasoline engines to meet future stringent emission regulations.To improve the low temperature performance of three-way catalysts, a novel Al2O3/CeO2/ZrO2 mixed oxide was developed. Compared to conventional CeO2/ZrO2 mixed oxides with similar compositions, the new material exhibits higher oxygen storage capacity especially at low temperatures and is more thermally durable. The improved thermal stability of the new material further stabilizes and improves the PGM dispersion on the support. As a result, low temperature TWCs based on the new…
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Applicable Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Multi-Diesel Exhaust System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Umicore AG & Co. KG-Naohiro Kato
Umicore Shokubai Japan Co., Ltd.-Yosuke Goto, Shota Kawashima, Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Hideki Goto, Masao Hori
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1511
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) having high purification performance to the exhaust gas at low temperatures were investigated. In this paper two main technological improvements from conventional DOC are shown. First is forming Pt/Pd composite particles in order to suppress sintering of precious metal under high thermal aging condition. This generating Pt/Pd composite and the effect were exemplified by TEM-EDS and XRD analysis. Second is adjusting electric charge of Pt/Pd surface to reduce interaction between Pt/Pd and carbon monoxide (CO) by modifying the support material components. Adjusting electric charge of Pt/Pd surface by applying new support material could cancel CO poisoning at Pt/Pd surface. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) studies suggested that improved support material is more suitable for CO oxidation at a low temperature based on the concept.In this study, the fundamental function of DOC such as oxidation activity at a low temperature and heat-up property by fuel injection were eventually evaluated using diesel engine. The new DOC achieved the performance competitive with conventional DOC applied for EU5 regulation, even if precious…
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Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

General Motors Co.-Elana Chapman, Richard S. Davis, William Studzinski, Pat Geng
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1226
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
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DOC Development Targeting Emerging High S Area Market

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Johnson Matthey Japan GK-Lifeng Wang, Takeshi Kadono, Satoshi Sumiya
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1515
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Low cost and S(sulphur)-tolerant DOCs (Diesel Oxidation Catalysts) are being demanded in emerging countries such as China and India, where Euro 4 and 5 type emission standards are going to be implemented or are being implemented. However, fuel S content is different in the metros vis-à-vis non metros in many emerging countries. In such a scenario, DOCs need to maintain catalytic performance with high S fuel as well as standard low S fuel. This paper describes the development results of S tolerant Pt-Pd based DOCs.A new washcoat technology (WT D) has been developed for EU 4 passive Pt-Pd DOC applications, in which PGM cost was thrifted by replacing part of Pt by Pd. Vehicle test results after thermal ageing and S poisoning demonstrated that the Pt-Pd DOC (Pt:Pd=4:1) prepared with WT D gave similar tailpipe CO (Carbon monoxide) and HC (Hydrocarbon) emission conversions as a commercially available EU 4 passive Pt-only DOC when 50ppm S diesel fuel was used. When 350ppm S fuel was used, the Pt-Pd DOC exhibits higher CO and THC emission conversions…
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A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Lab.-Eric Rask, Henning Lohse-Busch
Michigan Technological Univ.-Jay Anderson, Scott Miers
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1375
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy.This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures. These include a modern conventional vehicle with a 6-speed automatic transmission equipped with a torque converter, a downsized and turbocharged GDI vehicle with a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission, a modern turbo-diesel with a 6-speed dual-clutch transmission, and a gasoline-electric hybrid with a power split transmission. The vehicles were operated on a chassis dynamometer…
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Comparison of Tribological Performance of WS2 Nanoparticles, Microparticles and Mixtures Thereof

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oakland University-Kelly Daly Flynn, Ionut C. Harta, J. David Schall
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0949
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Tribological performance of tungsten sulfide (WS2) nanoparticles, microparticles and mixtures of the two were investigated. Previous research showed that friction and wear reduction can be achieved with nanoparticles. Often these improvements were mutually exclusive, or achieved under special conditions (high temperature, high vacuum) or with hard-to-synthesize inorganic-fullerene WS2 nanoparticles. This study aimed at investigating the friction and wear reduction of WS2 of nanoparticles and microparticles that can be synthesized in bulk and/or purchased off the shelf. Mixtures of WS2 nanoparticles and microparticles were also tested to see if a combination of reduced friction and wear would be achieved. The effect of the mixing process on the morphology of the particles was also reported. The microparticles showed the largest reduction in coefficient of friction while the nanoparticles showed the largest wear scar area reduction. Mixtures of nanoparticles and microparticles did not provide the desired combination of significant friction and wear reductions.
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Impact of FAME Content on the Regeneration Frequency of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Dimitris Katsaounis, Christos Samaras, Savas Geivanidis, Zissis Samaras
Concawe-Kenneth Rose, Heather Hamje, Liesbeth Jansen, Corrado Fittavolini, Richard Clark, Maria Dolores Cardenas Almena
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1605
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Modern diesel vehicles utilize two technologies, one fuel based and one hardware based, that have been motivated by recent European legislation: diesel fuel blends containing Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). Oxygenates, like FAME, are known to reduce PM formation in the combustion chamber and reduce the amount of soot that must be filtered from the engine exhaust by the DPF. This effect is also expected to lengthen the time between DPF regenerations and reduce the fuel consumption penalty that is associated with soot loading and regeneration.This study investigated the effect of FAME content, up to 50% v/v (B50), in diesel fuel on the DPF regeneration frequency by repeatedly running a Euro 5 multi-cylinder bench engine over the European regulatory cycle (NEDC) until a specified soot loading limit had been reached. The results verify the expected reduction of engine-out particulate mass (PM) emissions with increasing FAME content and the reduction in fuel economy penalty associated with reducing the frequency of DPF regenerations. Fuel dilution measurements on lubricant samples taken from the…
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Semi-empirical Analysis of Cold Start Emissions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US EPA-Ryan Stubleski, Anthony Saunders
USEPA-Robert Anthony Giannelli
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1619
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Automobile time-resolved emissions of CO, CO2, HC, and NOx during engine and catalyst warm-up have been analyzed by fitting the emissions to the product of vehicle tractive power and a series of gaussian functions whose relative magnitudes were allowed to vary in time. From this analysis the emissions were discerned into four components : (1.) the emissions due to vehicle power demand, (2.) key-on emissions, (3.) a catalyst warm-up emissions function, and (4.) a fast idle emissions function. Both the emissions associated with the engine and the catalyst warm-up decline exponentially with time. Two additional characteristics (a.) emissions occurring during idling and (b.) emissions due to catalyst cooling during idle were observed, but not quantified. Also, a semi-empirical formula to approximate cold start emissions for light duty cars which includes the vehicle tractive power, time constants which define the emissions decrease in time, and the power demand characteristics has been developed. The data included thirteen light duty cars with model years ranging from 1995 through 2010. The driving cycles included the FTP, ST01, and LA92.
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Comparison of Measurement Strategies for Light Absorbing Aerosols from Modern Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Cummins Emission Solutions-Michael Robinson, Z. Gerald Liu
Univ. of Wisconsin-Michael Olson, James Schauer
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1570
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Light absorbing components of aerosols, often called black carbon (BC), are emitted from combustion sources and are believed to play a considerable role in direct atmospheric radiative forcing by a number of climate scientists. In addition, it has been shown that BC is associated with adverse health effects in a number of epidemiological studies. Although the optical properties (both absorbing and scattering) of combustion aerosols are needed in order to accurately assess the impact of emissions on radiative forcing, many models use radiative properties of diesel particulate matter that were determined over two decades ago. In response to concerns of the human health impacts of particulate matter (PM), regulatory bodies around the world have significantly tightened PM emission limits for diesel engines. These requirements have resulted in considerable changes in engine technology requiring updated BC measurements from modern engines equipped with aftertreatment systems. In this study, a variety of common ambient monitoring techniques were used to characterize the light absorbing properties of diesel aerosol. Aerosol optical properties were directly measured with an Aethalometer and Photoacoustic…
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