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Compatibility Assessment of Elastomer Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol
- James Baustian - Butamax Advanced Biofuels, LLC ,
- Les Wolf - Butamax Advanced Biofuels, LLC ,
- Michael D. Kass - Oak Ridge National Laboratory ,
- Timothy Theiss - Oak Ridge National Laboratory ,
- Steve Pawel - Oak Ridge National Laboratory ,
- Chris Janke - Oak Ridge National Laboratory ,
- Wolf Koch - Technology Resources International, Inc.
ISSN: 1946-3952, e-ISSN: 1946-3960
Published April 01, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Kass, M., Theiss, T., Pawel, S., Baustian, J. et al., "Compatibility Assessment of Elastomer Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(2):445-456, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1462.
The compatibility of elastomeric materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline and gasoline blends containing 10 and 17 vol.% ethanol, and 16 and 24 vol.% isobutanol. The actual test fuel chemistries were based on the aggressive formulations described in SAE J1681 for oxygenated gasoline. Elastomer specimens of fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), polyurethane, neoprene, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silicone were exposed to the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 20 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also performed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg).
Comparison to the original values showed that all elastomer materials experienced volume expansion and softening when wetted by the test fuels. The fluorocarbons underwent the least amount of swelling (<25 %) while the SBR and silicone samples exhibited the highest level of expansion (>100%). The level of swelling for each elastomer was higher for the test fuels containing the alcohol additions. In general, ethanol produced slightly higher swell than the oxygen equivalent level of isobutanol. When dried, the fluorocarbon specimens were slightly swollen (relative to the baseline values) due to fuel retention. The NBRs and neoprene exhibited shrinkage and embrittlement associated with the extraction of plasticizers. SBR also experienced shrinkage (after drying) but its hardness returned to the baseline value. The dried volumes (and hardness values) of the silicone, SBR and fluorosilicone rubbers closely matched their original values, but the polyurethane specimen showed degradation with exposure to the test fuels containing ethanol or isobutanol. The DMA results showed that the test fuels effectively decreased Tg for the fluorocarbons, but increased Tg for the NBR materials. The Tg values other elastomers were not affected by the test fuels.