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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
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Simulation of the Noise Radiated by an Automotive Electric Motor: Influence of the Motor Defects

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Vibratec-Jean-Baptiste Dupont, Racha Aydoun, Pascal Bouvet
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2070
Published 2014-06-30 by SAE International in United States
The noise radiated by an electrical motor is very different from the one generated by an internal combustion engine. It is characterized by the emergence of high frequency pure tones that can be annoying and badly perceived by future drivers, even if the overall noise level is lower than that of a combustion engine.A simulation methodology has been proposed, consisting in a multi-physical approach to simulate the dynamic forces and noise radiated by electric motors. The principle is first to calculate the excitation due to electromagnetic phenomena (Maxwell forces) using an electromagnetic finite element solver. This excitation is then projected onto the structure mesh of the stator in order to calculate the dynamic response. Finally, the radiated sound power is calculated with the aid of a standard acoustic finite element method. The calculation methodology assumes a weak coupling between the different physical levels. It has been validated by comparison with the experiment.This simulation only considers the excitation generated by a perfect machine. This paper focuses on the possibility to include in this simulation the defects…
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Optimization of the Series-HEV Control with Consideration of the Impact of Battery Cooling Auxiliary Losses

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson Univ-Xinran Tao, John Wagner
Clemson-ICAR-Xueyu Zhang, Andrej Ivanco, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1904
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the impact of battery cooling ancillary losses on fuel economy, and optimal control strategy for a series hybrid electric truck with consideration of cooling losses. Battery thermal model and its refrigeration-based cooling system are integrated into vehicle model, and the parasitic power consumption from cooling auxiliaries is considered in power management problem. Two supervisory control strategies are compared. First, a rule-based control strategy is coupled with a thermal management strategy; it controls power system and cooling system separately. The second is optimal control strategy developed using Dynamic Programming; it optimizes power flow with consideration of both propulsion and cooling requirement. The result shows that battery cooling consumption could cause fuel economy loss as high as 5%. When dynamic programming coordinates control of the powertrain and the cooling system in an optimal way, the fuel consumption penalty due to cooling losses is reduced to 3.7%, and battery duty cycle becomes milder. Finally, rules are extracted from the optimal strategy, and a refined rule-based strategy is presented.
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Design Optimization, Development and Manufacturing of General Motors New Battery Electric Vehicle Drive Unit (1ET35)

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

General Motors Co.-Shawn Hawkins, Alan Holmes, David Ames, Khwaja Rahman, Rodney Malone
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1806
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The General Motors (GM) 1ET35 drive unit is designed for an optimum combination of efficiency, performance, reliability, and cost as part of the propulsion system for the 2014 Chevrolet Spark Electric Vehicle (EV) [1]. The 1ET35 drive unit is a coaxial transaxle arrangement which includes a permanent-magnet (PM) electric motor and a low loss single-planetary transmission and is the sole source of propulsion for the battery-only electric vehicle (BEV) Spark. The 1ET35 is designed with experience gained from the first modern production BEV, the 1996 GM EV1. This paper describes the design optimization and development of the 1ET35 and its electric motor that will be made in the United States by GM. The high torque density electric motor design is based on high-energy permanent magnets that were originally developed by GM in connection with the EV1 and GM bar-wound stator technology introduced in the 2Mode Hybrid electric transmission, used in the Chevrolet Volt and in GM eAssist systems. The 1ET35 transaxle provides high power density and low system loss over a wide speed range, resulting…
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Development of a Dynamic Driveline Model for a Parallel-Series PHEV

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

The Ohio State Univ.-Amanda Hyde, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1920
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels. The model accounts for rotational dynamics and inertias of the torque generating components, gearboxes, and wheels. Additionally it considers the effects of stiffness and damping from the belt and shafts…
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Cone Calorimetry as a Tool for Thermal Hazard Assessment of Li-Ion Cells

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Exponent Inc.-Vijay Somandepalli, Hubert Biteau
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1838
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The emergence of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) as a viable means of transportation has been coincident with the development of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology and electronics. These developments have enabled the storage and use of large amounts of energy that were previously only possible with internal combustion engines. However, the safety aspects of using these large energy storage battery packs are a significant challenge to address. In addition, the rapid advances in electrode and electrolyte materials for Li-Ion batteries have made comparisons and ranking of safety parameters difficult because of the substantial variations in cell designs. In this work, we outline a method for quantifying the thermal safety aspects of Li-ion battery technologies using a Cone Calorimeter.The Cone Calorimeter is a suitable tool to measure and quantify critical information such as the heat release rate and total energy released from the combustion of organic material. Such techniques cannot be directly applied to study the energy release characteristics, during combustion, of non-organic and energetic material like Li-ion cells. Combining data from…
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Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Adam Opel AG-Rainer Immel
BMW AG-Jesse Schneider
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1990
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions. It defines the fueling protocol and operational fueling parameters that ensure both station and vehicle maintain their safety limits (e.g. SAE J2578) while delivering optimal fueling performance. The results of the standard allow a representative…
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Impact of Electric Drive Vehicle Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1084
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
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Energy Management in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Different Driving Conditions

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Technical Univ. of Braunschweig-Mirko Schulze, Rashad Mustafa, Benjamin Tilch, Peter Eilts, Ferit Küçükay
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1804
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are facing increased challenges of optimizing the energy flow through a vehicle system, to enhance both the fuel economy and emissions. Energy management of HEVs is a difficult task due to complexity of total system, considering the electrical, mechanical and thermal behavior. Innovative thermal management is one of the solutions for reaching these targets.In this paper, the potential of thermal management for a parallel HEV with a baseline control strategy under different driving cycles and ambient temperatures is presented. The focus of the investigations is on reducing fuel consumption and increasing comfort for passengers. In the first part of this paper, the developed HEV-model including the validation with measurements is presented. In the second part, the combined thermal management measures, for example the recuperation of exhaust-gas energy, engine compartment encapsulation and the effect on the target functions are discussed. Simulation results show potential of reduction fuel consumption together with increasing the comfort for the passenger cabin.
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Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Powertrain Configurations with Respect to Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

IAV Automotive Engineering GmbH-Thomas Juergen Boehme, Matthias Rothschuh, Benjamin Frank, Matthias Schultalbers
University of Rostock-Markus Schori, Torsten Jeinsch
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1158
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In the past decade, various Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles have been demonstrated which offer the potential of a significant reduction in fuel consumption and emission. However, this capability strongly depends on the sizing of the components, driver's usage profile and the quality of the energy management. These challenges require new optimization procedures for a systematical exploration of the design space with the objective of an optimal powertrain configuration. A novel optimization strategy based on a multi-objective problem formulation is proposed. The optimization procedure consists of a multi-objective genetic algorithm for determining the best design parameters with respect to fuel consumption and driving performance. The approach is combined with an analytical optimal control problem to find the optimal continuous and discrete control trajectories for the energy management.
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