Batteries and Charging: Vol. 2



Authors Abstract
The battery electric vehicle (EV) industry has experienced considerable growth over the last few years, demonstrating a clear acceleration in adoption and deployment. Recent government policies and incentives will further drive the demand for production over the next 10 years. Concurrently, the lithium-ion battery industry has grown dramatically as manufacturers look to meet demand. However, there are still many questions concerning what will happen to batteries as they reach their end of life (EOL), as EV batteries that have “aged out” can either be reused, recycled, or go to a landfill.
This chapter addresses some unsettled issues around lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling. Reuse can delay battery EOL, lower costs of photovoltaic solar energy storage, and reduce the logistics emissions that would come from the recycling process. However, insufficient investment and regulations are current barriers to a robust reuse system, and safety concerns potentially hinder adoption. Recycling, on the other hand, offers many benefits, such as reduced demand for raw minerals and provision of a stable domestic source of materials for production. Despite the benefits of battery recycling, there are also many challenges when considering their transportation and disassembly. US transportation regulations are complex and contribute to the high cost of recycling, as well as environmental impacts and overall sustainability. Once batteries arrive at a recycling facility, they must be disassembled to recover cobalt, lithium, metal foils, and other materials. Only a small percentage of batteries are recycled today and disassembling them is difficult and time consuming. Human operators must undertake a labor-intensive, lengthy process to discharge used batteries before breaking them down manually. All these challenges will need to be addressed as the industry sees an influx of EV batteries reaching their EOL within the next decade.
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Bush, J., Souweidane, N., and Muelaner, J., "Batteries and Charging: Vol. 2," SAE Technical Paper EPRCOMPV232023, 2024, .
Additional Details
May 10
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Technical Paper