Introduction to Automated Vehicle Safety: Multi-Agent, Functional, SOTIF, and Cybersecurity

Fatal accidents involving automated vehicles (AVs) have made it clear that safety is paramount to their acceptance, testing, verification, validation, and deployment. In fact, safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles, and understandably so, since safety has some of the most complex requirements in the development of such vehicles. However, there are many misconceptions involving safety and the concept of safety as applied to automated vehicles.

This two-day course will help characterize the nature of safety and the fundamental technology involved in the design, development, testing, operation, and deployment of automated vehicles and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). The course will enable participants to envision a future where the safety of automated vehicles is well understood and will guide all stakeholders in the development and use of safe automated vehicles. You’ll learn the main attributes of safety as applied to automated vehicles, including the four types of safety: Functional Safety, Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF), Multi-agent safety, and safety involved in cybersecurity attacks. The discussion will enable participants to conceive of the various applicable design aspects of safety, clarify the role of SOTIF, multi-agent safety, and cybersecurity safety and address the development of multi-agent safety using a probabilistic and stochastic framework.

Participants should bring a laptop computer for five, in-class exercises designed to ensure application and retention. Learners will complete the exercises during class and will get assistance and feedback from the instructor.

What Will You Learn

By participating in this seminar, you’ll be able to:
  • Articulate the concepts of hazard, risk, risk assessment, and risk reduction
  • List and describe the most fundamental ideas and techniques of Functional Safety, SOTIF, Multi-Agent safety, and Cybersecurity safety
  • Describe the salient features and application of the ISO 26262 standard to AVs
  • Develop a Functional Safety Concept for a specific subsystem of an AV
  • Summarize the main NHTSA safety guidelines for AVs 
  • Summarize the main elements to be addressed while writing a safety report for an AV 

Is This Course For You

This course will be especially valuable for those needing to address safety issues in the design of ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems) and automated vehicles. Participants should have a mechanical, electrical, or computer engineering or computer science degree.

Exclusive eBook Offer: Your course participation qualifies you for a specially-priced bundle of five books that explore automated vehicle safety concepts and technologies, authored by course instructor, Dr. Juan Pimentel. Click here for a summary of the series and links to a description of each volume. Details on this exclusive offer are sent to learners upon completion of the respective course offering.

Materials Provided

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Course Requirements

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Module I
  • Safe Autonomous Vehicle Platform: Safety Critical Components
    • Control functionality
    • Perception system
    • Computing platform
  • Risk Classification (Automotive Safety Integrity Level: ASIL)
  • Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA)
  • Safety Functions, Safety Goals
  • Overview of Functional Safety

    Assignment #1: Description and Requirements
    The assignment consists in developing an autonomous vehicle top level design and performing a PHA (preliminary hazard analysis). The design should specify:
    • Functionality
    • Perception system
    • Computing platform
    • AV platform
Module II
  • Overview of ISO 26262
  • Development of the Functional Safety Concept
    • Failure identification: random and systematic failures
    • AV safety critical subsystems
    • List of errors, faults, failures, hazards
    • AV safety goals
    • Assignment of ASILs
    • Risk mitigation and risk reduction
  • Discussion of Assignment #1
    Assignment #2: Description and Requirements
    The assignment consists in developing and documenting a Functional Safety Concept (FSC) for the design of assignment #1
Module III
  • Challenges in the Application of ISO 26262 for Autonomous Vehicles
    • Perception system issues (SOTIF)
    • End-to-end considerations
    • Computing and communication issues
    • Behavioral safety considerations
  • Introduction to Behavioral Safety
  • Introduction to SOTIF
  • Discussion of Assignment #2
Assignment #3: Description and Requirements
The assignment consists in evaluating the safety hazards that happens when a vehicle shares the road with other vehicles

Module IV
  • Behavioral Safety
    • Sharing the road with others
  • Vehicle Dynamics Considerations
  • Accidents: Fault, Blame, Guilt
  • Responsibility Sensitive Safety (RSS)
    • Ego vehicle
    • Safe actions/behaviors
    • Absolute safety
  • Safety Guarantees, Cautious Driving
  • Discussion of Assignment # 3
Assignment # 4: Description and Requirements
The assignment consists in specifying the main safety critical functions (SFC) of your autonomous vehicle design and for each safety critical function, design a sub-system for risk reduction. For each SCF, specify its ASIL value and include the following: Functional Safety; Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF); Behavioral (multi-agent) Safety

Module V
  • Guaranteeing Multi-agent Safety
    • Safe longitudinal distance
    • Safe cut-in of the ego vehicle
  • Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF)
  • Role of Governments in AV safety
  • NHTSA Safety Guidelines
  • Discussion of Assignment #4
Assignment # 5: Description and Requirements
The assignment consists in specifying the main safety features and processes of an autonomous vehicle and develop a corresponding safety report according to NHTSA guidelines to include: Operational Design Domain (ODD), Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR), Fallback (Minimum Risk Condition)

Module VI
  • System Safety
    • Designing a capable system
    • Analyzing safety performance
    • Applying development processes
  • Writing a Safety Deport
    • Operational design domain (ODD)
    • Object and event detection and response (OEDR)
    • Fallback (Minimum Risk Condition)
  • Discussion of Assignment # 5
  • Summary/Take Away