Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering Academy

SAE Engineering Academies provide comprehensive and immersive training experiences, helping new and re-assigned engineers become proficient and productive in a short period of time. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering Academy covers hybrid and electric vehicle engineering concepts, theory, and applications relevant to HEV, PHEV, EREV, and BEV for the passenger car industry. While the theory and concepts readily apply to the commercial vehicle industry as well, the examples and applications used will apply primarily to the passenger car industry.

What Will You Learn

Upon completion of the academy, participants will be able to:
  • Define and analyze fundamental electrochemistry of battery operation and performance requirements for HEV, PHEV, EREV and full electric vehicle applications
  • Estimate the size of a cell to meet a specific requirement
  • Create a cradle-to-grave, or cradle-to-use list of materials used in any type of automotive battery
  • Compute the temperature response of battery cell and pack assemblies for a simple model
  • Describe the functions performed by a Battery Management System (BMS)
  • Explain different approaches to estimating state of charge, state of health, power and energy
  • Apply the operation of brushless dc and induction motors to HEV and EV vehicles
  • Define the torque speed curves for motors and the application to electric and hybrid electric vehicles
  • Describe the features of buck, boost, and Transformer converters
  • Compare and contrast the various industry and regulatory standards for hybrid vehicle components, batteries, and charging systems
  • Describe the main hybrid and electric vehicle development considerations and performance requirements for various vehicle system
  • Identify how to define key vehicle system requirements and select and size system components that best meet those requirements

Is This Course For You

Individuals who already have a basic understanding of hybrid and/or electric vehicles who are seeking to increase their knowledge and understanding of hybrid vehicle system applications, including mechanical and electrical application engineers, design engineers, project managers, and other individuals who are working with or transitioning to hybrid-electric powertrain development, will find this academy particularly helpful.

Materials Provided

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Course Requirements

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Systems Integration and Analytical Tools
  • Vehicle Development Process Overview
    • Requirements Development
  • Hybrid Components and Architectures
    • Major components in hybrid powertrain
    • Controls integration
    • Component sizing and integration tradeoffs
    • Hybrid architecture overview
  • System Design and Development Considerations
    • Vehicle integration (ex. performance, drivability, NVH)
    • Powertrain integration (ex. energy, power, efficiency, torque, thermal management)
    • HV/LV electrical systems (ex. safety, DC/AC voltage, charging system, efficiency, cables, connectors, fuses,
    • Chassis (ex. braking, vehicle dynamics, powertrain to chassis dynamics, ride and handling, steering, fuel system)
    • Displays/information (ex. messages, information aids, usage efficiency aids)
    • HVAC (ex. HV compressor, HV heater, cabin comfort, efficiency considerations)
  • Verification and Validation Considerations
    • Verification and validation test requirements and planning
    • Component test considerations
    • System test considerations
    • Fleet testing
  • Summary/Conclusions
Electric Motors
  • Maxwell's equations
  • Magnetic Circuits
    • The basic concepts of magnetic circuits
    • Application of Governing laws
    • Magnetic Force/Torque Production
    • Non-Linear magnetic material behavior
    • Losses and Efficiency
  • Fundamental Theory, Performance, Construction & Control
    • Transformers
    • Synchronous Machines
      • Wound-field
      • Permanent Magnet
    • Reluctance Machines
      • Switched Reluctance
      • Synchronous Reluctance
    • Flux Modulating Machines
    • DC Machines
  • Non- Electromagnetic Design & System Considerations
Safety, Testing, Regulations, and Standards
  • Standards Roadmap for Electric Vehicles
    • - SAE; - UL; - IEC
    • - Performance and Safety
  • Applicable Battery Standards
    • Battery Transportation
    • Battery Safety
    • Battery Pack: SAE J2464/J2929
    • Compare and Contrast the various industry standards
  • Vehicle and Charging Standards
    • FMVSS
    • Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Descriptions
    • Governing Bodies for Regulations
    • Certification Requirements and Options
  • Performance Standards
    • Charging interfaces
    • SAE J1772 charge protocol
    • Battery Characterization and life cycle testing
  • Video Demonstrations
    • Mechanical Shock
    • Short Circuit
    • Overcharge
    • Fire Exposure
Power Electronics
  • Introduction - Why Power Electronics?
  • Overview of Power Density
    • Effects of air vs. liquid cooling
    • Effects of efficiency
  • Converter Topologies
    • Buck, boost, transformer
  • Inverter Topology
    • 6-pack inverter
    • Space Vector Control
  • Sources of Loss in Power Electronics
    • Conduction, switching, leakage, and control losses
  • Power Semiconductors
    • Insulated Gate Bi-polar Transistor (IGBT)
    • Metal-Oxide-Silicon Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
    • Emerging technologies: Moore's law, silicon carbide
Battery Management Systems
  • Block Diagram - Main Functions of a BMS
  • Sensing Requirements
    • Cell/module level: cell voltage, cell/module temperature, (humidity, smoke, air/fluid flow)
    • Pack level: current, pre-charge temperature, bus voltage, pack voltage, isolation
  • Control Requirements
    • Contactor control, pre-charge circuitry
    • Thermal system control
  • Cell Balancing: Active versus passive, strategies
  • Estimation Requirements
    • Strategies: different approaches and benefits of model- based approach
    • How to create a model via cell tests
    • State of Charge estimation
    • State of Health estimation
    • Power estimation
    • Energy estimation (range estimation)
  • Electronics Topologies
    • Monolithic versus master/slave versus daisy-chain
    • Implications of battery pack topologies: parallel strings versus series modules
    • Available chipsets for designing electronics
  • Other Requirements: CAN communication, data logging, PH/EV charger control, failure modes/detection, thermal systems control
  • Future Directions for Battery Management, Degradation Control
Lithium-Ion Battery Design
  • Overview of Battery Design
  • Major Cell Components
  • Overview of Battery Modeling and Simulation
  • Lithium-Ion Cell Design Example
Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling

High Voltage Battery Charging Methods & Some Aspects of Battery Pack Design
  • Basic Battery Reactions
  • Overcharge Reactions
  • Consequences of Overcharge
  • Design Considerations
  • Thermal Considerations
  • Charging Infrastructure/methods
  • Basic Definitions
  • Conductive Charging
    • Method
    • Standards
  • Inductive Charging
  • DC Charging
    • Definition
    • Issues: Infrastructure, Thermal, and Life
  • Grid Infrastructure
    • Basic infrastructure
    • Grid interactions: bi-directional communication and power flow
  • Aspects of Battery Pack Design
Thermal Management for Batteries and Power Electronics
  • Introduction
    • Thermal control in vehicular battery systems: battery performance degradation at low and high temperatures
    • Passive, active, liquid, air thermal control system configurations for HEV and EV applications
  • Brief Review of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer
    • First Law of Thermodynamics for open and closed systems; internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heat
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics for closed systems; Tds equations, Gibbs function
    • Fluid mechanics: laminar vs. turbulent flow, internal flow relationships, Navier Stokes equations
    • Heat transfer: simple conduction, convection, and radiation relationships; Nusselt number relationships for convective heat transfer; energy equation
  • Battery Heat Transfer
    • Introduction to battery modeling: tracking current demand, voltage, and State of Charge as functions of time for given drive cycles
    • Development of thermodynamic relationships for cell heat generation
    • Lumped cell and pack models for transient temperature response to drive cycles
    • Model parametric study results
  • Thermal Management Systems
    • Overall energy balance to determine required flow rates
    • Determination of convection and friction coefficients for air and liquid systems in various geometric configurations: flow around cylinders, flow between plates, flow through channels
    • Development of a complete thermal system model and parametric study results
    • Temperature control and heat transfer using phase change materials
  • Thermal Management of Power Electronics